Book Texts – Moving Picture: World’s Shortest Prequel

Floodwaters in certain parts of Sampaloc district would rise chest-high by grade-schooler’s proportions as recently as during the late 1960s, and my brothers and I would wallow through invisible potholes and visible sewage just to be able to get home in time to avoid alerting the household to our absence. It didn’t seem as depressing as it sounds, because soon as we got home we’d drop paper boats from the window sill and marvel at how automobile spillage would form rainbow-colored patterns amid the raindrops and waves. How to convey the values and dimensions of this primal aesthetic experience, beauty in detritus, has been the greater challenge of my work as film critic and teacher. Often my impatience has engendered a style that’s reflective of both aspects of such a childhood impression – didactic, I think, but with an incongruous informality. Formal college-level training dwelled on the incompatibility of the combination, and so my early work tended to assume the tone of Moses mandating monotheism on Mount Sinai, handing down revelations whose densities abhorred loose or open ends.

The further from academe I grew, the less self-conscious my notions of style became; at the same time I could not help but uphold the same standards for the works I selected for evaluation. With the inevitable maturation of my personal faculties, I somehow approached an ideal (rarely achieved, of course) of readability amid discourse complicated even for myself. Necessarily this involved periods of selectivity as well as rest and consolidation, but methinks the consequences are different for critics who rely on exigencies of artistic production, rather than artists who depend on critical evaluation; for in the final analysis, the artist could assume critical functions, at the very least for herself, while the critic can never really work in a vacuum, even (or perhaps especially) when working on theoretical issues.

I do badly regret not having come of age during the start of my self-proclaimed second Golden Age of Philippine cinema during the mid-seventies, although I suspect that more effective groundwork had been accomplished during the more turbulent pre-martial law years. As a college-fresh neophyte who honed my fangs on political and economic animadversions, I could draw from the likes of, say, Aliw and Aguila, but Manila by Night and Kakabakaba Ka Ba? from the same period seemed too intricate to unravel and too deep to reach then. I found sufficient leeway to try various approaches thereafter, but at the expense of otherwise praiseworthy attempts in Angela Markado and Batch ’81. And just when I decided to return to school, for which I had to hold down a job – both as full-time preoccupations, out came a full and consistent flowering of films, unaware even that late of the searing effect of the then-forthcoming February 1986 people-power uprising.

Only afterward could I graduate from chronicler to confident commentator, with the rather desperate optimism that, like what happened after the early post-martial rule dry spell, another Golden Age would not be long in following. Invariably my appreciation of paper boats and grease rainbows made the excursion through Manila’s bloodstreams worth the plunge. Along the way I could get my fill of doing retrospective commentaries, but then the best part consisted of divining what could come next and occasionally seeing it fulfilled in some form or other.

Alternative author’s pic for The National Pastime, taken by National Midweek official photographer Gil Nartea.

My list of great film-writers all have some profound contradictions crisscrossing their works, and this, more than anything else, makes reading them doubly difficult. Given the luxury of a lifetime, I’m sure I’ll be developing a few swivels and turnabouts here and there; already I know which of my past output, aside from the ones I’ve already mentioned, I could renounce in the name of personal progress, but meantime I did write them once, and became interested enough to stand by them even through the trauma of publication. So they appear as they do now, contextualized only by their respective dates of issue, in order to maybe show how far I’ve come (or gone), and perhaps qualify the shortcomings of the worthier items.

There’ll be an entire future to face, marked in the meantime by the impending close of the current century. Film, as I’d written elsewhere, will undergo further and radical transformations in terms of technology and approach, and what we consider Third-World practice is on an ascendency. There won’t be just floodwaters to cross, there’ll be entire oceans to swim, and though by then I might be sounding different, difficult even, I guess we’ll all be lucky, though we’ve long deserved it, to be where it’s at come the time.

[First published October 3, 1990 in National Midweek]

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Book Texts – A Second Golden Age

When Ishmael Bernal used the exact same term “Second Golden Age” in his last major interview, with Aruna Vasudev (16-23), I knew that it had effectively supplanted Bienvenido Lumbera’s coinage “New Philippine Cinema” in his “Problems in Philippine Film History” (193-212).[1] Not that that was my intention though; in fact I deliberately maintained a non-titular preference for the uncapitalized “second,” even though I succumbed to standard capitalization practice later. The essay was the opening salvo (to use Patrick D. Flores’s review description) in a series of provocations that I was hoping would initiate productive, even dissentious, exchanges. Yet even the negative responses to The National Pastime seemed willing to accept, or maybe reluctant to question, the premise behind the assertion that the martial-law era ironically provided a fecund playing field for cinema, or shall we say Ciné-mah.

My own attempt at questioning the Golden Ages idea was (to me) too late, too rushed, and too reasonable (see “The Golden Ages of Philippine Cinema: A Critical Reassessment”), even if it also happened to be the first to do so. On the other hand, my elaboration of the aesthetic issues raised in the present article (via Fields of Vision’s “The ‘New’ Cinema in Retrospect”) appears increasingly defensive and interminable, the longer I look back on it. Nevertheless I submit that the following article encapsulates Marcos-era film policy and its overall-favorable impact on film practice, as well as film observers’ urgent need to find useful historical frameworks for further applications (and incidentally, to fellow Nora Aunor fans: “Performances of the Age” is only a section of the present article, not a stand-alone write-up). “A Second Golden Age” was originally published in the October-December 1989 issue of the Cultural Center of the Philippines journal Kultura (pp. 14-26 – p. 14 is below), then edited by Bien Lumbera; its title was modified by the publisher of The National Pastime (where it appeared on pp. 1-17) to include the parenthesized phrase “An Informal History.” To jump to later sections, click here for:


Click the pic to open a PDF scan of a photocopy of the original article.

Talk has been current, but not ardent enough, about the recent conclusion of a second Golden Age in Philippine cinema. Of course the notion of a Golden Age has its share of reputable disputants. No less than Eddie Romero, who surged forward at the start of what may be considered our filmic Golden Age II, cited ancient Greece in claiming that no such period of clear and concentrated artistic achievement could be reasonably circumscribed anywhere. On the other hand lies a just-as-ancient necessity of defining parameters for purposes of easier classification and, more important, to enable contemporary observers to draw significant lessons therefrom. Presuming that Golden Ages do exist, no other period becomes more needful in finding out how and why they do than that immediately following the conclusion of such a one.

More to the point of Romero’s argument, however, would be the obvious difficulty in pinpointing specific periods of artistic productivity. The flowering of Athenian culture could be studied intensively within the context of entire centuries of ancient Greek life; true, certain important artists and philosophers were contemporaries of one another – but this was more of the exception, the rule being one major practitioner being followed, chronologically speaking, by another who would either break away from the elder’s school or tradition, or venture completely on her own in a new, unpredictable direction.

The soundness of Romero’s assertion actually derives from the fail-safe construction of his logic. Nothing in human history can ever compare to the Greeks’ cultural exploits – and so, if we grant that they never had a Golden Age, then there never could have been any such thing since. Rather than despair over our modern-day limitations in the face of such insurmountable criteria of excellence, I believe we could do well enough in assessing ourselves for more sober, though perhaps less immortalizing, reasons. By this account a Golden Age need not be a wholly intensive and sustained national outbreak of cultural creativity. A limited period in a specific field, defined according to the concentration of output relative to periods preceding and succeeding it, should prove adequate for the moment.

Golden Age I

The first Golden Age in Philippine cinema has had slightly varied reckonings of its exact duration.[2] All, however, agree to the inclusion of the entire decade of the 1950s. The most important feature of this period was the political stability brought about by postwar reconstruction and the aggressive suppression of the Communist insurgency, paralleled in film by the stabilization of the studio system.

That this phase ever came to a close indicates the short-sightedness of the solutions being applied. Reconstruction commits itself only to the attainment of a previous level of accomplishment (in this case the prewar situation), whereas insurgency addresses itself to the overthrow of a government on the basis of a problem – agrarian reform – more persistent that its leaders’ understandable aspirations to political power. The movie industry’s studio system, in seeking to institutionalize professionalism and (incidentally?) control the means of distribution, overlooked the natural inclination of talents, including stars, to seek more abundant means of remuneration outside the system if necessary, as well as the willingness of independent production outfits to forsake the studios’ long-term advantages and meet the demands of talents in return for faster and more immediate profits.

Hence the interval between the first and the second Golden Ages saw the rise of the independents and the superstars, backgrounded by the revitalization of the peasant-based insurgency and an engineered economic instability that paved the way for the imposition and eventual acceptance of fascist rule.

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A Near-Golden Age

The declaration of martial law in 1972 promoted hopes for an end to the country’s political and economic difficulties. It also may have forestalled a creative resurgency in local moviemaking, brought about through a subsequently admitted social experiment by censors chief and presidential adviser Guillermo de Vega, who was later assassinated under mysterious circumstances.

A casual view of the products of the pre-martial law seventies reveals what we might have been headed for: socially conscious and psychologically frank products, without a compulsion to alienate the vast majority of moviegoers, even in the most artistic instances. Apparently neutral or even antipathetic projects actually allowed for a lot of leeway in the selection of material and permutations of form and expression. Most significant was the proliferation of bomba or hard-core sex films, the direct result of de Vega’s extreme libertarianism; but just as important were the counter-reactions, the musicals and love triangles, that provided relief in opposing formats, even for serious practitioners. Moreover, regional (Cebuano-language) cinema had mellowed at the latter portion of a wondrously long curve, providing assurances of alternatives for Manila-based practitioners (which included Emmanuel H. Borlaza and Leroy Salvador), as well as an additional stable for the recruitment of onscreen talent, notably the Amado Cortez – Gloria Sevilla and Eddie Mesa – Rosemarie Gil clans.

Ismael Bernal came up with the last major black-and-white Filipino film and the most important debut of his generation with Pagdating sa Dulo. Lino Brocka, who was to share with Bernal the rivalry for artistic supremacy in the Golden Age that was to come, rebounded quick with a pair of highly inspired komiks-adapted titles for his studio base, Lea Productions, namely Stardoom and Tubog sa Ginto, plus an otherwise effective Fernando Poe Jr. epic, Santiago. This era, rather than the mid-seventies as commonly supposed, also signalled the maturation of Celso Ad. Castillo. In another Poe-starrer, Asedillo, as well as in a horrific bomba entry, Nympha, he exhibited a fascination for unconventional visual values and thematic daring, properties that were to serve him well during the latter part of the decade.

Other names associated with academe- and theater-based artist circles made their mark with relatively serious attempts, including Elwood Perez with Blue Boy and Nestor U. Torre with Crush Ko si Sir. Perhaps more significantly, a number of scriptwriters who were to figure prominently during the forthcoming Golden Age first emerged here, with either solo or shared credits: Torre with his debut film, Bernal with Luis Enriquez’s Ah, Ewan! Basta sa Maynila Pa Rin Ako!,[3] and Orlando Nadres with Tony Cayado’s Happy Hippie Holiday. Brocka, after writing for Luciano B. Carlos’s Arizona Kid, provided breaks for several scriptwriting aspirants, among them Nadres with Stardoom, Mario O’Hara with Lumuha Pati mga Anghel, and Alfred Yuson with Cherry Blossoms.

Right after Marcos’s martial-rule clampdown, and in a sense a consequence of the aforementioned near-anarchic (and therefore procreative) bent, came names like Peque Gallaga and Buth Perez with Binhi, Romy Suzara with Tatlong Mukha ni Rosa Vilma, Jun Raquiza with Dalawang Mukha ng Tagumpay, and George Rowe with Paru-Parung Itim, Nora Aunor’s first production, serious film, and (it wasn’t to be the last such combination) box-office flop. Rolando Tinio wrote for Bernal’s Now and Forever and Ricardo Lee, using the pseudonym R.H. Laurel, for the late Armando Garces’s Dragnet.

Pre-Golden Age II

Critics currently carping at the discernible decline in the quality of film output relative to the period prior to the 1986 revolution should actually have more to be grateful for, aside from the usual evolutionary benefits of better technology and more formalized media, even film-specific, education. At least an excess of film awards, a heritage of the just-concluded second Golden Age, ensures that truly deserving products will now have a greater chance of acquiring recognition, no matter how belated. In the first half of the seventies all we ever really had was the Filipino Academy of Movie Arts and Sciences (FAMAS), then suffering a downswing in sensibility from which it has never fully recovered; and so, despite the long list of titles mentioned above, its early seventies best-film winners were forgettables like Kill the Pusher, Mga Anghel na Walang Langit, Nueva Vizcaya, and Gerardo de Leon’s regrettable Lilet.

Keeping the faith were Bernal, Perez, and Joey Gosiengfiao with their usually combinative Sine Pilipino/Juan de la Cruz Productions; Castillo with his horror films; Raquiza with this thrillers; Suzara with his sober dramas; and Nora Aunor with her admirable acting vehicles, including the only project that could boast of crediting both de Leon and Lamberto Avellana, the omnibus Fe, Esperanza, Caridad.

It was Brocka, however, who returned from a period of inactivity with two productions that combined the then-impossible characteristics of being both major and personal, Tinimbang Ka Ngunit Kulang in 1974 and Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag in 1975. The direct beneficiaries of this renewal of artistic consciousness in film included Brocka himself, with his three-in-one Tatlo, Dalawa, Isa; Perez with his three-in-one Isang Gabi, Tatlong Babae!; Gosiengfiao with the last Filipino black-and-white movie La Paloma, ang Kalapating Ligaw; Castillo with his careful revivification of the bomba (later to be called “bold” and initiated with the wet look) in Ang Pinakamagandang Hayop sa Balat ng Lupa; and Bernal with Mister Mo, Lover Boy Ko.

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Golden Age II: Beginnings

Maynila could properly serve as the marker for the second Golden Age of Philippine cinema. It was a more precious and accomplished work than the same director’s Tinimbang, and ushered in a tendency toward new talents and novel projects that was to intensify in the coming year. Brockas’s triumphs, overwhelming even the FAMAS, can be regarded as the conclusive cause, especially in the light of his current and still single-handed renewal of filmic consciousness, this time on an international scale, with his post-’86 works Macho Dancer and Orapronobis.

There are, however, other attributable semi- or even non-industrial reasons for the phenomenon. The relative sanguinity brought about by the sudden infusion of foreign loans (before these assumed malignant proportions), coupled with the enforced stability of early martial rule, encouraged several newly prosperous entities to invest their money in a business that could be both glamorous and profitable. The youthful mass audience of the early seventies was prepared for a divergence and diversification of its favorite diversion, which was to culminate in a sophistication of its command of visual language that may still be extant at present. De Vega’s widow, Ma. Rocio, took over after his death and, for some reason or other, saw fit to return to his pre-martial law policy of libertarianism – which the military was to exploit as an excuse for its small-scale takeover of film-censorship prerogatives.

Maynila’s impact was meanwhile long-ranging enough, boosted as it was by the earlier success of Tinimbang, and a whole new breed of filmmakers came to the fore; in chronological order: Lupita Concio (later Kashiwara) with Alkitrang Dugo, Eduardo Palmos co-directing Saan Ka Pupunta, Miss Lutgarda Nicolas?, Behn Cervantes 1976’s first debutant with Sakada, O’Hara with Mortal, Dindo Angeles with Sinta! Ang Bituing Bagong Gising, Gil Portes with Tiket Mama, Tiket Ale, sa Linggo ang Bola, and Mike de Leon with Itim.

And these were just the ones who either started big or had major follow-up projects. A cursory look at the 1976 Filipino filmography would reveal a handful of other new names which would probably be of interest to those determined to delve deeper into the dynamics of the period. Again, however, the writers ought to sustain more productive study than the also-rans: Clodualdo del Mundo Jr. was responsible for the adaptation of Maynila from the novel by Edgardo Reyes, who himself was to cross over presently into the medium with Bernal’s Ligaw na Bulaklak. Preceding them were newsmen Antonio Mortel and Diego Cagahastian, who co-wrote Mister Mo, Lover Boy Ko, and fictionists Alberto Florentino and Wilfredo Nolledo, who were to be joined shortly by Jose F. Lacaba in Gosiengfiao’s omnibus Babae … Ngayon at Kailanman. Mauro Gia. Samonte was to write for Castillo’s Tag-ulan sa Tag-araw, Jorge Arago for Bernal’s Nunal sa Tubig, and Marina Feleo-Gonzalez for Kashiwahara’s Minsa’y Isang Gamu-gamo. Lamberto Antonio collaborated with O’Hara on Brocka’s Insiang, Roy Iglesias with Eddie Romero on the latter’s Ganito Kami Noon … Paano Kayo Ngayon?, and Gil Quito with del Mundo (and Ricardo Lee without credit) on Mike de Leon’s Itim.

Sakada would have been the military establishment’s typical target for repression, but it unfortunately enjoyed the endorsement of de Vega; Danilo Cabreira’s Uhaw na Bulaklak, Part II served the purpose even better, deflecting as it did potentially confrontational politics toward the issue of moral rectitude; typically again, both titles had new writers-Lualhati Bautista and Oscar Miranda (with an uncredited Reuel Aguila) for the former, Franklin Cabaluna for the latter.

Guideposts for the Times

Three developments, all of the same kind, served to temper the disheartening reality of the military’s assumption of local film censorship. The fact that the reconstituted body announced itself as “interim” in nature, implying an eventual return to civilian rule, was belied by its initial action of enforcing stricter measures, to the point of requiring the approval of storylines and screenplays and imposing a code that seemed deliberately directed against the output of serious practitioners. An entire catalog of anecdotes, sometimes humorous and often infuriating, primarily comprising dialogs between military censors and intelligent film practitioners, awaits documentation and will definitely help in particularizing the naïveté and arrogance of Filipinos suddenly imbued with power and influence.

The already mentioned developments actually consist of the introduction of award-giving mechanisms by three sectors that were to make bids of varying degrees of urgency on mass media in general, and film in particular: the Catholic Church, government, and intelligentsia. The Catholic sector, in reviving its Citizens’ Award for Television, expanded it to encompass locally existent media of communications. Significantly, the first best-film winner of the Catholic Mass Media Award was Nunal sa Tubig, which had seen rough sailing with the censors. The government, for its part, centralized all the annual city festivals in the newly organized metropolitan area in one major undertaking held during the lucrative spell between Christmas and New Year. The first few editions were either idealistic or disorganized or both, so that sensible film producers tended toward a policy of reserving prestige productions for this season. Despite occasional protestations from the bloc of foreign-film distributors and an ill-advised attempt to require developmental messages during the late seventies, the Metro Manila Film Festival (MMFF) has endured as the government’s singular contribution to the pursuit of quality in local cinema, its awards being coveted not so much for the prestige they bestow as for the free and favorable publicity they afford otherwise commercially imperiled releases.

The third, and for our purposes the most important, film awards for this period consist of those handed out by the reviewers’ circle, the Manunuri ng Pelikulang Pilipino (MPP), organized in 1976 and barely in time for the first flowering of the second Golden Age. The Urian awards, as these were called, served to recall and amplify the impact of the first MMFF in their echoing of the latter’s best-picture choice, Ganito Kami Noon. In fact the FAMAS, so as not to be left too far behind, selected another MMFF entry, Minsa’y Isang Gamu-gamo, for its top-prize winner, and observed the Urian’s dark-horse selection of Nora Aunor as the year’s best actress for her performance in her latest flop-production, O’Hara’s Tatlong Taong Walang Diyos. The Urian remained the most serious award-giving body for the most part of its first decade of existence, employing a system of viewing assignments, repeated screenings, and exhaustive deliberations that would have proved perfect had it been implemented conscientiously and consistently. Whatever the turnout of the MPP’s choices for any given year, the fact remains that its nominations were generally reliable reflections of the industry’s achievements in the medium, and thereby serve as better indicators of the state of the art than the awards themselves.

This point was to be driven home as early as the next year of its existence. Where the MMFF actually defied the cultural establishment, which responded by withdrawing the prizes it handed out to Castillo’s Burlesk Queen, the Urian responded against the film as a representation of the MMFF’s process, selecting an academically defensible but less artistically vital entry as its year’s winner, and coming around to the Burlesk Queen filmmaker by awarding his next-year entry, which like the previous year’s winner was period and epic in scope. Such subjectivity of vision, coupled by a preference for underdog nominees, prompted Brocka, the fourth best-director awardee, to castigate the group and reject its future commendations. Nevertheless, as mentioned earlier, the MPP’s process right up to the deliberation of prizewinners was refined enough to ensure the accommodation of accomplishments that were major by the reasonably highest possible standards of filmic evaluation.

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Four Peaks

By this account it becomes evident that the performance output of the local film industry’s best and brightest tended to observe peaks and valleys, instead of a consistent (and therefore easily predictable) plateau or slope. The first was of course the already described beginning, that yielded Maynila on one end and Ganito Kami Noon on the other. The second was a good four years after, when the highest artistic point of the Golden Age and, by reasonable extension, of Philippine cinema thus far, was attained with Bernal’s Manila by Night. Afterward major-status entries on the order of Bernal’s innovations with filmic milieu arrived with regular frequency, with Marilou Diaz-Abaya’s Moral two years later; Brocka’s Miguelito: Batang Rebelde still another three years after would close the era, curiously with the same director who helped open it.

This regularity of productivity was in fact cut short by the 1986 revolution, in much the same way that Proclamation 1081 ended the early seventies’ creative outbursts. Sociopolitical upheavals may be the most obvious, but definitely not the only, similarities between the periods in question. Prior to 1986, as before 1972, an era of moral permissiveness held sway in cinema. Immediately after the upheavals, audiences tended to shy away from moviegoing, and had to be lured back with blatantly commercial products that all but outlawed conscious attempts at artistry. The second Golden Age in this regard was distinguished by some of the riskiest filmmaking projects in local history: during the turn of the decade, one movie after another vied in laying claim to being the most expensive Filipino production ever, with audiences seemingly willing to reward these efforts if only for the sheer audacity of the claims.

Each artistic peak mentioned, in fact, also had clusters of other big-budget, even period productions attending it. Maynila was period by necessity, since early martial rule forbade derogatory references to the Marcos regime;[4] Ganito Kami Noon combined an ideological concern – the origin of “Filipino” as a historical designation – with the period of its metamorphosis, the transition from Spanish to American colonial rule. Romero was to further flesh out his pursuit of the identity of the Filipino with some other big-budget and period titles: Aguila, which covered the current century; Kamakalawa, which was situated during the pre-Spanish mythological era; and Hari sa Hari, Lahi sa Lahi, which was begun during but released after the Golden Age, and set also during the pre-Spanish era of regional trade relations. None of these other movies attained the balance between technical competence (Aguila would have been the closest) and storytelling superiority (Kamakalawa excelled only in this aspect) manifested by Ganito Kami Noon, and meanwhile Romero, who was a movie-generation removed from Brocka and Bernal, was exceeded in medium-based modernization by the practitioners who were to follow.

Brocka, on his part, responded to international exposure with a deliberate and sometimes disconcerting minimalization of his filmic abilities. Insiang, Jaguar, Angela Markado, Bona, PX, Cain at Abel, and Bayan Ko (Kapit sa Patalim) (in order of release) all may have followed Maynila chronologically, but actually antedate it in terms of the filmmaker’s capability of matching sweeping social concerns with an appropriately expansive vision. Aside from this, their distinction of having had international exposure in various festival venues here and abroad could perhaps only develop a case for Brocka as an auteur in the now-conventional sense of the word, where one work will have to be viewed in relation to all the rest before it could be appreciated. Miguelito, on the other hand, as a vastly improved reworking of Tinimbang Ka, is a contemporary but still-critical view of the body politic with its social and, more important, dramatic distensions intact, rather than deflated to microcosmic dimensions as Brocka had been wont to do in the case of the other films.

Bernal benefited the most from the effervescence of this period, mapping out a strategy that may have seemed erratic during the time but which denotes in retrospect the most impressive directorial figuring out and working over of the medium since Gerardo de Leon adopted the principles of deep-focus realism. Like de Leon, Bernal proceeded to adopt a foreign trend, this time the then-emergent character-based multi-narrative process, first experimenting with limited success in Nunal sa Tubig then introducing commercial elements on a more modest scale in Aliw. The greater profitability of the latter, in terms of both audience and critical reception this time, most likely emboldened him enough to return to large-scale businesses in Manila by Night, which in turn may have overstretched his technological capabilities somewhat but also served to accommodate his contributions to an international filmmaking mode, in a way that de Leon never managed to.

Manila by Night in effect proved that a personalized and multi-stylized approach to this manner of presentation of subject matter was possible, and that the filmmaker could choose to oppose the expectation of a final and logical conclusion and still justify an open-endedness in terms of his material. After such an accomplishment a more conventionalized orientation overtook Bernal – one that drew from the domestic dramas and comedies he directed prior to Manila by Night, the most memorable being Ikaw Ay Akin. His only other epic-scale project since, Himala, recalled Nunal sa Tubig in its choice of material (the eternal countryside, as contrasted with the contemporary big city in all of his other films), but the treatment this time observed classic unities rather than the versatilities which had brought him attention in the first place. Bernal’s other multi-character projects fared even less triumphantly, among them Ito Ba ang Ating mga Anak?, Working Girls, and The Graduates. A Working Girls sequel, released after the Golden Age, so dismayed everyone involved that Bernal has since tended to inhibit himself from such ventures, concentrating instead on small-scale projects where he had considerable success right after Manila by Night: Relasyon, Broken Marriage, and Hinugot sa Langit, among others.

New Generation

Expediently for Brocka and Bernal, as well as Romero and, in a sense, Castillo before them, the second Golden Age lent an aura of legitimacy to the infusion of new blood into the system. Early on Mike de Leon and O’Hara persisted with always prestigious and occasionally remunerative projects; with the arrival of the eighties, the splashy debuts of women directors Marilou Diaz-Abaya and Laurice Guillen recalled the heyday of Kashiwahara, then already inactive.

It was Peque Gallaga, however, who demonstrated that even newcomers could buck the system and turn it to their advantage: first he won the scriptwriting contest of the Experimental Cinema of the Philippines (ECP) for the storyline proposal of Oro, Plata, Mata, then acquired the right to direct it, and saw it right through copping a special jury prize from the Manila International Film Festival (MIFF) as well as major Urian awards, including best film. Curiously, however, succeeding aspirants could not duplicate Gallaga’s procedure; the closest anyone came to doing so was in using the ECP venue, the Manila Film Center (MFC), as Tikoy Aguiluz did for Boatman, rather than directing ECP productions, as Pio de Castro III and Abbo Q. de la Cruz were to discover after finishing Soltero and Misteryo sa Tuwa respectively; in this instance the dynamics of governmental support for the industry supplied the causative factors, and a thorough investigation of the matter would yield invaluable lessons for the future.

Before Gallaga’s virtual one-man coup, the female directors managed to call attention to themselves as viable entities; but how much of the appreciation was prepared by prevalent feminist sentiments still has to be quantified. Guillen had a modest and well-appreciated hit with her first film Kasal?, then after a box-office trauma went on to a more notable achievement with Salome, which won the Urian best-film prize. Diaz-Abaya, on the other hand, saw her first production, Tanikala, sink to the depths of anonymity – and her investment along with it, but rebounded vigorously enough with the MMFF multi-awardee and box-office placer Brutal.

In common with the early ascendency of these two was their scriptwriter, Ricardo Lee. Coming from a shared distinction (with Jose F. Lacaba) for Brocka’s box-office bomb but Urian winner and Cannes Film Festival competition entry Jaguar, Lee had his first solo masterstroke with Brutal and followed up in an even bigger way with Salome. His association with Bernal cemented as consultant for Manila by Night and writer for Ito Ba, Relasyon, and Himala, he proceeded to devise a female-humanist (typically mistaken for early-wave feminist) milieu movie, Moral, which Diaz-Abaya directed. Moral stands as the only other Golden Age product clearly in the same league as Manila by Night; the other possible sharers of this category would be Miguelito and, from the first Golden Age, Gregorio Fernandez’s Malvarosa – both of which suffer inadequacies that disallow declarations of unqualified masterliness within the terms of the multicharacter format. Thereafter Lee’s collaborations with Diaz-Abaya would result in relatively less satisfactory products, particularly Karnal and Alyas Baby Tsina. He subsequently realized higher degrees of literacy in cinema in his scripts for Mel Chionglo’s Sinner or Saint and Chito Roño’s Private Show, produced at the tail end of and released after the Golden Age; more fulfilling accomplishments, however, were awaiting him in other film-related media, notably journalism, metafiction, and playwriting, all of which he would turn to after the Golden Age.

The other directors fared fairly enough in establishing a respectable level of artistic sensibility in their works. Gallaga had a slightly better epic than Oro, Plata, Mata in Virgin Forest, which met with a counter-reaction probably inevitable considering the earliness and eagerness of the initial response that greeted him. After dabbling in melodrama with Unfaithful Wife, he would make one last epic, the fantasy feature Once Upon a Time, which had the misfortune of being released during the period of transition following the Golden Age, when no movie could hope to recoup its investments. Thereafter he would concentrate on and rise in favor again for expertly handling the horror genre, which would facilitate his return to epic filmmaking with Isang Araw Walang Diyos.

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Fringes of the Avant-Garde

Gallaga deserves a more lasting recognition for his revitalization of the sex film in Scorpio Nights, released at about the same period as his Virgin Forest and Aguiluz’s Boatman, and for the same venue, the MFC. In being less defensive about its social conscience, Scorpio Nights turned out to be a more effective evocation of proletarian decadence than any local erotic movie ever made.

Two significant directors, Castillo and Mike de Leon, reached their prime in the medium during the middle part of the Golden Age, then settled for relative obscurity afterward. Castillo came out with a series of mostly sex films that never matched the precocity of Burlesk Queen, while de Leon observed the Stanley Kubrick model, emulated to a lesser extent by Gallaga, of dabbling in one genre after another. His comeback in 1980 after a three-year hiatus resulted in a major-status movie that has managed to outlast all his other works so far, the political absurdist comedy-musical Kakabakaba Ka Ba? Along with Brocka, de Leon became a prominent figure at Cannes, where his subsequent output – the thriller Kisapmata and propagandistic Sister Stella L., plus Batch ’81, his misanthropic contribution to milieu delineation – were exhibited to mostly favorable commentaries. After an excursion into melodrama that disappointed him but not his financiers, de Leon shifted, right with the close of the Golden Age, to video with a feature, Bilanggo sa Dilim, that exemplified his directorial coming-of-age.

O’Hara similarly advanced in expertise as the period wore on. After making a financially fruitful comeback (after an absence about as long as de Leon’s), he came up with a partially successful milieu movie, Bulaklak sa City Jail, and followed up a previous action-thriller, Condemned, with another, Bagong Hari. Mostly O’Hara continued his association with Nora Aunor, who had more resounding results with Brocka and Bernal, but nevertheless managed to augment her store of talent with O’Hara.

One last directorial debutant, Chito Roño, whose Private Show came out almost too late for the Golden Age, bears comparison with the aforementioned names. In the period to come, Brocka, by virtue of his conscious holding back, may have already reprised his role as harbinger of what ought to turn out to be another, or at least an extension of the previous, Golden Age. Chionglo, Gallaga, O’Hara, Roño, Diaz-Abaya, and Guillen are in a position to assume artistic leadership, with Bernal, Castillo, and de Leon making authoritative contributions alongside Brocka, and Romero upholding the value of verified virtues in the craft.

The writer will be privileged with greater responsibility, as indeed almost all of these enumerated individuals are capable of scripting their and others’ works if desirable or necessary. Ricardo Lee will continue holding forth as a major non-directing filmmaker, with del Mundo, Lacaba, and newer members like Jose N. Carreon (Ikaw Ay Akin, Broken Marriage), Jose Dalisay Jr. (Miguelito), Rosauro de la Cruz (Scorpio Nights, Virgin Forest), and Amado Lacuesta Jr. (Hinugot sa Langit, Working Girls) regularly providing thematic worth and structural strength. A number of other writers, including Armando Lao and Bibeth Orteza, may have had apprenticeships during the Golden Age, but would seem to have considerable opportunities of playing the field thence.

Performances of the Age

Award-sweeping became the in thing, what with the addition of more and overlapping bodies to the already flourishing FAMAS, Urian, MMFF, and CMMA – to wit, the Philippine Movie Press Club (PMPC), with its Star trophy, and the Film Academy of the Philippines (FAP). Two of these, the FAP and the FAMAS, claim to be industry-based recognitions, although the FAP is more systematically organized according to guilds; this advantage of legitimacy also brings with it the disadvantages of the prevalence of popularity choices,[5] just as between the Urian and Star, the former may comprise a number of serious critics, but the latter possesses the humility necessary for thoroughgoing review and evaluation processes.

Despite the propensity of these groups, both collectively and as individual bodies, in setting records for favored artists, the outstanding performance of the period belongs to that of Nora Aunor in Himala, which was honored only by the MMFF. Aunor had been possessed with a search for superior acting vehicles, and threw away a lot of her own money in the process, since in essence she mostly had to run against the preferences of her mass supporters. With Brocka she made perceptible strides in ensuring her lead over the rest of the pack, particularly in Ina Ka ng Anak Mo and Bona. But all that was really required of her was a project that had enough scope to demonstrate her far-reaching prowess, with a minimum of editorial manipulation. In Himala the director and writer seemed to have agreed to a mutual stand-off, thus amplifying the theatrical potential of an expansive locale with protracted takes; stage-trained talents ensured the competent execution of histrionic stylizations, with the climax set on an open-air platform before a hysterical audience. It was a truly great actress’s opportunity of a lifetime, and Nora Aunor seized it and made it not just her role, but her film as well.

Nora Aunor on the set of Ishmael Bernal’s Himala (1982).

Not since Anita Linda in Gerardo de Leon’s Sisa (circa the first Golden Age) had there been such a felicitous exploitation by a performer of ideal filmmaking conditions – and in this instance, Himala has the decided advantage of being major-league and universal. Other consistent stand-outs during the period – and these would be formidable enough as they are – demand to be taken in terms of body of work, not any individual movie: Vic Silayan for Ligaw na Bulaklak, Kisapmata, and Karnal; Gina Alajar for Brutal, Salome, Moral, and Bayan Ko; Nora Aunor for whatever title she appeared in during the eighties, regardless of budget, intention, or box-office result. Record-setters of this period, specifically Phillip Salvador, Nida Blanca, and Vilma Santos, deserve mention if only for the skills and supreme good fortune necessary in attaining their respective feats. Among newcomers, only Jaclyn Jose of Private Show seems to hold forth promise of an order comparable to most of those listed herein.

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Institutional Developments

What factors could have contributed to this concentration of creativity? The only trend that could be cited with confidence is something commonly perceived as a hindrance, its claims to patronage notwithstanding: active governmental intervention. The irony here can be traced from the very beginning (of the second Golden Age, that is) – the militarization of film censorship, and even beyond, if we were to particularize the controls on culture that the declaration of martial law brought about. With the fullest possible flowering of the Golden Age during the turn of the decade, the irony could not but have been heightened further. The government then set in motion the machinery of total institutional support that was to be known presently as the Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, eventually housed at the aforementioned Manila Film Center (MFC).

The Manila Film Center, site of some of the best and worst excesses of the Marcos dictatorship.

To be sure, a compounded series of half-hearted inclinations betrayed the ultimate objectives of the ECP. First it was founded not to respond to any industrial necessity, but to legitimize the then-First Lady’s Manila International Film Festival. Then, to appease a First Daughter angered by the kidnapping of her paramour, control of the legitimizing body was turned over to her; this must have been perceived as a shrewd decision, since Imee Marcos-Manotoc, perhaps partly out of her rebellion against her parents, had been soliciting the advice of Marcos oppositionists in culture, most of whom had castigated the first MIFF. The granting to her of ECP was expected therefore to placate both her and too-outspoken Filipino film artists.

Palace politics in this regard kept the Marcos family too busy among themselves to pay attention to the moves of film practitioners. Film producers meanwhile were lured by the prospect of greater returns on investment with the introduction of an international venue (specifically the MIFF’s film market module) on these very shores. Hence films with big budgets and attendant artistic ambitions began to see the light of, er, theatrical exhibitions.

Marcos-Manotoc herself proved to be sincere about her responsibilities, at least during a crucial early phase of her assumption of ECP leadership. The rejection of the MIFF was just a signal to Malacanang of her sincere intentions. By then she had several projects running simultaneously, most of which had a highly favorable impact on film as artistic endeavor. Witness: the production of scriptwriting contest winners, subsidies for worthy full-length film proposals, tax rebates for deserving productions, exhibition of otherwise shunned or banned releases, plus a number of relatively minor benefits – first-rate screening venues, a library of film titles and books, short-film competitions with cash incentives, book and journal publications, archival research and preservation, seminars and workshops, etc.

The arrangement was too good to be true, and eventually succumbed to the regime’s self-destructive tendencies, embodied in this instance in the irrepressible Imelda Marcos. Once Marcos-Manotoc had been distracted by her election to the so-called legislature, the ECP quickly went moribund, with funds hemorrhaged for the alleged promotion of MIFF in foreign countries and with the MFC operated according to a prohibitive maintenance cost. This meant that not only would all charitable functions cease, including film productions and subsidies, but also only sure-fire highly profitable titles, which then as now denoted hard-core sex films, could be exhibited at the MFC’s exclusive venues.

The expected denunciation by the industry of the ECP’s exemption from censorship and taxation, premised on the grounds of unfair competition, was reinforced in part by a bid for survival by the censors body, which with the ECP had reverted to civilian status; a retaliation was also in order, since the ECP under Marcos-Manotoc had initiated moves to outlaw film censorship. All this controversy served to act as check on the choice of films for MFC exhibition, ensuring that the new leadership would resort to artistic quality (the very same excuse invoked for the MIFF), if nothing else, as defense. The outcome, in practical terms, was a handful of local erotica, including the previously mangled Manila by Night, unmatched in art consciousness relative to any other period in local history.

The Marcos government, however, could not stem the tide of the anti-dictatorship movement, especially as fortified by the outrage over the Aquino-Galman assassination, and the post-Imee ECP proved to be a most attractive target. In the end the by-now predictable, and thereby ineffectual, Marcos solution of establishing new institutions or transforming existing ones to conform ostensibly to legal requisites was applied to the ECP. The body was dissolved and another one, the Film Development Foundation of the Philippines (FDFP), set up in its place, without any change in the organization itself, save for its avowal of now being less public in nature; in fact it was intended to enjoy the best of both worlds – semi-private and thus exempt from censorship, semi-public and thus exempt from taxation.

That the FDFP did not differ from ECP except in name would have induced a renewed struggle for the formation of a truly responsive organ for institutional support, but at this point the nation’s attention was diverted by the snap elections that led to the people-power uprising that in turn expelled Marcos, shut down his film institution for good, and drew to a close the second Golden Age of Philippine cinema.

Intrinsic Reasons

The futility of pinpointing institutional causes, a legacy of materialist orientations which even artists are prone to resort to, becomes evident when we take other national experiences into consideration. In South American countries, whose colonial and religious histories most closely resemble the Philippines’ own, artistic creativity has always been a direct function of political freedom. The same observation applies to contexts closer to home – in neighboring Asian countries. One would expect that the combination of both features – Hispanization and Orientalism – would only strengthen this correlation between the practice of politics and the production of art.

Not only do the Marcos years disprove this extrapolation; the few years since provide enough dramatic contrast to further affirm this deviation from an otherwise logical deduction. Part of the answer may lie in the Machiavellianism of the Marcos regime, its perverse pleasure in playing cat-and-mouse games with its opponents. In the case of industry-based artists, who themselves are no strangers to such dialectics between ideals and realities, this inculcates a disposition toward subtlety and the sublime.

This answer could of course cut both ways. A practitioner may just as well be cowed by the double jeopardy of having to please both an immediate boss and an Orwellian Big Brother, and if the displeasure of either may already mean the loss of career and prestige – in short, everything for the artist – then the displeasure of both would amount to sheer terror, if not paralysis. In actuality, a number of local filmmakers did exhibit indications of the latter syndrome, but these may on the whole be balanced by the others who found favor with either a producer or the regime, in certain cases one against the other.

In the end we could only grant that a major factor for the occurrence of the second Golden Age lies in the superstructure itself – more concretely, in the confluence of film artists who somehow attained a level of individual maturity and collective strength within roughly a common time frame – a force, in effect, capable of transforming what would normally be political and industrial liabilities into aesthetic assets.

This situation couldn’t be too phenomenal; a similar one was realized in Italy during the neorealist era’s inception during the twilight of the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini.[6] Locally, the trend toward the organizing of artists, systematization of training (resulting in one extreme in the introduction of formal film studies at the State University), and the expansion of art consciousness in alternative film and related formats all betoken this contemporaneous ripening of occasional genius, regular expertise, and general resourcefulness in the country’s most popular mass medium. Final and conclusive proof of course lies in the works themselves – over a decade’s worth of major contributions to the art of cinema, on the whole outstanding by any standard, awaiting a comprehensive presentation to a global community that remains all the poorer for not having had the opportunity to strike the proper acquaintance so far.

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Notes

[1] Even a foreign “history” volume like Bryan L. Yeatter’s mostly dispensable write-up observes a 1974-85 periodization (129-65) that acknowledges a “Second Golden Era” without any clue about its provenance – a sign that the idea had become paradigmatic. As recent a text as Neferti X.M. Tadiar’s Things Fall Away (in Chapter 8, endnote 36), on the other hand, erroneously ascribes the Second Golden Age idea to Bienvenido Lumbera’s “Brocka, Bernal and Co.: The Arrival of New Filipino Cinema.” Based on a conference paper, Lumbera’s article was drafted in 1998 and made use of the term “New Filipino Cinema” (132, 135), a slight modification of his earlier catchphrase, “New Philippine Cinema,” that appeared in a number of his previous articles. Nowhere in any of Lumbera’s texts does “Second Golden Age” show up.

[2] The original argument for the existence of a First Golden Age was articulated by Jessie B. Garcia, in his article “The Golden Decade of Filipino Movies,” originally published in three issues of Weekly Graphic in April-May 1972 and reprinted in Readings in Philippine Cinema, ed. Rafael Ma. Guerrero (Manila: Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, 1983), pp. 39-54.

[3] In fact the long-cherished record of a National Artist for Film may have to be revised, or at least qualified. Culture critic Petronilo Bn. Daroy wrote that “Although his name was retained in the credits [of the Ah, Ewan! Basta sa Maynila Pa Rin Ako!] as director, [Ishmael] Bernal, on the first day of the showing of the film, was compelled to disown it” (Bernal et al. 6); the publicity layout, as if in response, bore the name of Luis Enriquez (Eddie Rodriguez’s actual name). No way of confirming what name appeared on the film credits is possible, since the film is considered lost; Nestor U. Torre, however, provided an inadvertent confirmation: “No, I told the film students – and they were ‘shocked’ to hear it – it wasn’t Pagdating sa Dulo [that was Bernal’s debut], as they had been taught in their film history subjects, but a Virgo Productions movie titled (take a deep breath) Ah, Ewan! Basta sa Maynila Pa Rin Ako!

[4] A disclaimer, in the form of the year “1970” superimposed on one of the opening shots of Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag, was deleted in the film’s global release, thereby situating the narrative in martial-law present. The insertion enabled the film to be passed by the censors during its initial release in July 1975, on the argument that the poverty depicted onscreen belonged to the old system (dubbed a “sick society” by Marcos, to contrast with the New Society ushered in by PD 1081). Its subsequent deletion, on the other hand, gave foreign observers the impression that the film had dared to critique the martial-law administration, effectively overwhelming it to the point of sweeping the industry awards for its year of release.

[5] During the launching ceremony for the Film Academy of the Philippines, Imee Marcos, then-recently appointed Director-General of the Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, announced that the FAP would be replacing the Filipino Academy of Movie Arts and Sciences (inasmuch as the latter was an academy only in name). Joseph Estrada, then still the mayor of San Juan City, had just won two FAMAS awards, each one his fifth as producer and as actor, thereby qualifying him for elevation to its Hall of Fame in two capacities (a historic first-and-only achievement) during the next year’s ceremony. He therefore waged a campaign in favor of maintaining the FAMAS, forcing film authorities to agree to allow the new academy and the old pseudo-academy to continue; ironically, the FAP would also experience its own schism in the new millennium, resulting in two sets of awards claiming to emanate from the same organization.

[6] My last conversation with Imee Marcos took place during her term as Congressperson representing her father’s Ilocos Norte district, in her office located at the University Hotel in Diliman; I was also serving as founding Director of the national university’s film institute and was invited to discuss the Experimental Cinema of the Philippines. She pointed out (rightfully) that the Philippine film industry managed to recover from the trauma of the late-millennium Asian financial crisis coupled with the phaseout of celluloid production, by adopting the strategies introduced by the ECP via its departments. I mentioned that the only country famed for introducing a FIAPF A-rated international film festival as well as a crucial support organization was Italy, during the regime of Benito Mussolini. I then ventured to point out the similarity between the name of the defunct ECP and the still-operational Centro sperimentale di cinematografia. She laughed and said it was a deliberate move on her end to give the Marcos film agency such a name, to find out how many people could pick up on the joke. (It was also possible that her then-rebellious streak may have also been a factor, but I was aware that she had already reconciled herself to her parents’ legacy, for better or worse, by then.)

Works Cited

Bernal, Ishmael, Jorge Arago, and Angela Stuart Santiago. Pro Bernal Anti Bio. Manila: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2017.

David, Joel. “The Golden Ages of Philippine Cinema: A Critical Reassessment.” Millennial Traversals: Outliers, Juvenilia, & Quondam Popcult Blabbery (Part I: Traversals within Cinema). Special issue of UNITAS: Semi-Annual Peer-Reviewed International Online Journal of Advanced Research in Literature, Culture, and Society 88.1 (May 2015): 1-15.

Lumbera, Bienvenido. “Brocka, Bernal and Co.: The Arrival of New Filipino Cinema.” Re-Viewing Filipino Cinema. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2011. 124-35.

———. “Problems in Philippine Film History.” Revaluation: Essays on Philippine Literature, Cinema and Popular Culture. Quezon City: Index, 1984. 193-212.

Tadiar, Neferti X.M. Things Fall Away: Philippine Historical Experience and the Makings of Globalization. Post-Contemporary Interventions series. Durham: Duke University Press, 2009.

Torre, Nestor U. “Ishmael Bernal’s Life Was His ‘Performance.’” Philippine Daily Inquirer (September 19, 2011). Posted online.

Vasudev, Aruna. “Cast in Another Mould.” Interview with Ishmael Bernal. Cinemaya 27 (April-June 1995): 16-23.

Yeatter, Bryan L. Cinema of the Philippines: A History and Filmography, 1897-2005. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 2007.

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Return to Book Texts contents


Positive Criticism (A Learning Program)

Schedule: Open
Venue: Pelikulove website

Email: <joelsky2000@yahoo.com>
Consultation hours: Via prearranged videochat

Faculty Profile:

Ph.D. & M.A. (as Fulbright scholar) in Cinema Studies, New York University; B.A. Film (cum laude) & A.B. Journalism (cum laude), University of the Philippines (national university); founding Director, University of the Philippines Film Institute; book publications include Manila by Night (an entry in the acclaimed Queer Film Classics series of Arsenal Pulp Press in Vancouver), The National Pastime, Wages of Cinema (UP Centennial Awardee), Fields of Vision (National Book Awardee), Millennial Traversals (originally a two-issue publication of UNITAS journal), and the forthcoming canon book project (cowritten with Jo-Ann Q. Maglipon) of Summit Media. Articles published in outlets including Southeast Asian Studies, Asian Studies Journal, Asian Journal of Women’s Studies, Humanities Diliman, Journal of Bisexuality, International Journal of Asian Studies, Kritika Kultura, Plaridel, and Manila Review. Member of Modern Language Association of America, Asian Studies Association, Society for Cinema and Media Studies, and Association of Filipino Educators in Korea; Gawad Lingap Sining (Culture-Nurture Awardee) of 2016 Filipino Arts & Cinema International Festival and of the first Glory Awards of the UP College of Mass Communication.

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Lecture Notes:

Film reviews, which evaluate films for the benefit of consumers, are seldom used in film study, since most of the non-Hollywood areas would not be considered or sometimes even rejected by mainstream film commentators. Students of film thus get exposed to a new type of writing, film criticism, which evaluates films not according to whether or not they deserve to be recommended to audiences, but according to how they “play” with film form and tradition, reflect the circumstances of their authors and community, and enact certain programs that have to do with questions of ideologies of society (e.g. class or nation) or of identity (race, gender, sexuality), often with the use of theory. Students who make the adjustment away from judging films as reviewers, in the direction of studying films as social and historical phenomena, will be able to derive a better understanding of the subject, and perhaps even new ways of appreciating new or unusual types of cinema.

Film criticism has been undervalued in both media and academe because of the assumption that film is universally appreciated, and therefore anyone can write about it and deserves to air her or his opinion. While this perspective is valid from a sociological standpoint, it has to be balanced with the reality that much of what passes for film commentary comes from individuals who either do not bother to look into the intrinsic qualities of the medium – e.g., the history, aesthetics, semiology, spectatorship, and future applications of film; or who uphold these values, but only and strictly as these have been articulated and prescribed for their contexts of origin, on the always-mistaken assumption that these could have universal applications.

Since the inception of the medium over a century ago, film theory has developed to the point where it pervades all audiovisual media discourse, including new media. This provides an advantage for young students to immediately recognize “pure” film theory when they study it, but it also makes it more difficult today to identify where film ideas may be headed. Film has become too diffuse an idea, present everywhere and therefore situated nowhere in particular. What can be done instead is the study of an alternate history of film theory, tracing its origin in pre-filmic (so-called technological-deterministic) discourse, through debates on form and realism, to modern and postmodern phases in its development, with the concept of power relations, as developed in feminist and gender theory, constantly foregrounded. In this way the student will be able to see that the proper study and critical application of contemporary film theory will not involve films (or films alone), but the wider spectrum of all available media, and even of society itself. This course will proceed from this critical evaluation of film criticism and provide practical ways in which writing on film can serve as both an effective elaboration of one’s responses as well as a juncture from which intersectional discourses in other fields can be initiated.

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SYLLABUS

Description:

A training course on film criticism proceeding from principles of theoretical expertise and literary expertise.

Objectives:

By the end of the course, the students should be able:

  1. to evaluate a film text in terms of its formal and sociological properties;
  2. to formulate an analysis of the film’s strengths and/or weaknesses in the interest of furthering contemporary discourse; and
  3. to express this critique in a manner that will attain maximum impact in the Philippine context.

Textbooks:

Braudy, Leo, and Marshall Cohen, eds. Film Theory and Criticism. 1974. 6th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Corrigan, Timothy. A Short Guide to Writing about Film. 1989. 6th ed. New York: Longman, 2005.

Corrigan, Timothy, and Patricia White. The Film Experience: An Introduction. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009.

Pramaggiore, Maria, and Tom Wallis. Film: A Critical Introduction. 2005. 2nd ed. London: Laurence King, 2008.

Additional References:

Bordwell, David, and Kristin Thompson. Film Art: An Introduction. 1979. 7th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2003.

Giannetti, Louis. Understanding Movies. 10th ed. 1972. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2004.

Hill, John, and Pamela Church Gibson, eds. The Oxford Guide to Film Studies. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Phillips, William H. Film: An Introduction. 3rd ed. 1999. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2004.

Prince, Stephen. Movies and Meaning: An Introduction to Film. 1997. 2nd ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2001.

Stam, Robert. Film Theory: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell, 2000.

Websites:

David, Joel. Amauteurish!.

Guerrero, Rafael Ma. (ed.). Readings in Philippine Cinema. Manila: Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, 1983.

Internet Movie Database. Website prone to error; use with caution.

Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media.

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Teaching Methods:

Lectures; discussion sessions (by special arrangement); homework preparation; final project: opening chapter of an open-access book project.

Grading System:

  • Attendance and recitation – 40%
  • Homework – 30%
  • Final paper – 30%

Schedule:

  • Session 1: Why Study Film Theory?

Content: Why film studies and production training comprise separate tracks; the difficulties and advantages of praxis; brilliant beginnings vs. career longevities; roads not taken in film professions.
Reading: Joel David, “Auteurs & Amateurs: Toward an Ethics of Film Criticism,” UNITAS 93.1 (May 2020): 17-36.
Screenings: Lav Diaz, Norte: Hangganan ng Kasaysayan (Wacky O Productions, Kayan Productions, Origin8 Media, 2013), c/o Pelikulove.

  • Session 2: How Film was First Regarded

Content: Filmic aspirations and early cinema; Classical Hollywood and its discontents.
Reading: Joel David, “Ethics First,” The National Pastime digital edition (Amauteurish Publishing, 2014).
Screenings: Gregorio Fernandez, Prinsipe Teñoso (LVN Pictures, 1954), available at Citizen Jake on Vimeo; Charlie Chaplin, The Kid (Charles Chaplin Productions, 1921), available at YouTube.

  • Session 3: Post-Classical Shifts in Predigital Cinema

Content: Neorealism, French New Wave, and third cinema.
Readings: Joel David, “Auteur Criticism” and “The Golden Ages of Philippine Cinema,” Book Texts Discourses section (Amauteurish Publishing, 2016).
Screenings: Gregorio Fernandez, Hukom Roldan (LVN Pictures, 1957), available at Citizen Jake on Vimeo; Vittorio de Sica, Miracle in Milan (Produzioni De Sica & Ente Nazionale Industrie Cinematografiche, 1951), available at YouTube.

  • Session 4: New Media and the Democratization of Filmmaking & Criticism

Content: Genre principles, postmodern aesthetics, digitalization, and the internet.
Reading: Joel David, “A Lover’s Polemic,” Book Texts Metacriticism section (Amauteurish Publishing, 2016).
Screenings: Gregorio Fernandez, Malvarosa (LVN Pictures, 1958), available at Citizen Jake on Vimeo; Park Chul-soo, 301, 302 (Park Chul-Soo Films Ltd., 1995), available at YouTube (age confirmation required).

  • Session 5: An Approach to Film Coverage

Content: Understanding audience expectations; the orchestration of detail; creating meaning through the world beyond film; the goal of film analysis: articulating meaning; the importance of developing interpretive claims.
Reading: Joel David, “Muzzled Bombardments,” Plaridel 14.2 (November 2017): 221-31.
Browsings: David Bordwell & Kristine Thompson, David Bordwell’s Website on Cinema; Catherine Grant, Film Studies for Free.
Screenings: Ellen Ongkeko-Marfil, Indigo Child (Pelikulove, 2017); Zbigniew Rybczynski, The Orchestra (Zbig Vision Ltd., Ex Nihilo Films, & NHK, 1990), available at YouTube.

  • Session 6: Traditional Methods, Contemporary Resources

Content: Close reading, book marking, note-taking, diagramming of print, film, and new-media material.
Reading: Joel David, “Writing Film Commentaries,” a Pelikulove exclusive.
Lecture/Discussions on Drafting, Consulting, Revising, Publishing, including: the effective lead; organization of ideas; conformism or contrarianism; tone, voice, perspective; closure or open-endedness.
Submission of final project proposals with sample review.

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Policies:

  1. The class will be conducted bilingually, in English and Tagalog, with internet research of English-language websites. Recitations, written material, and consultations should similarly be conducted bilingually.
  2. Activities outside the classroom will be assigned occasionally. It is understood that students agree that they are solely and fully responsible for themselves in fulfilling this requirement.
  3. Exercises will be written on MS Word files, letter-size pages with 1-inch margins, with name on the first line, flush left, and the date of the exercise right below. No title required. Texts should be double-spaced. For the final project, the instructor will provide a form during the penultimate (5th) week, to be turned in during the final week.

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Á!


Comprehensive Pinas Film Biblio: Chronologized

Important: To see these entries in reverse-chronological order, click here; to see them grouped by category, click here; the entries in alphabetical order, listed by author, can be found here; for an alphabetical listing by title, please click hereTo return to the landing page, click here. Any notes that follow each entry’s name of publisher are annotations made by the author, which fall under copyright. Out-of-print books and chapters that I wrote or edited may be found in this blog’s Books section.

For years in chronological order beyond the 1910s: 1929, 1938, 1943, 1949, 1952, 1958, 1967, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020.

1912

A Campaign for Public Decency and Civic Morality. Manila: Santo Tomas.

1918

Internal Revenue, Philippines Bureau of. Cinematographic Film Regulations: Administrative Order No. 50. Manila: Bureau of Internal Revenue.

1929

Way, Eugene Irving. Motion Pictures in Japan, Philippine Islands, Netherland East Indies, Siam, British Malaya, and French Indo-China. Trade Information Bulletin No. 634, series of the United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. Washington, DC: Government Publishing Office.

1938

Virrey, Teodoro. Ang Pelikulang Tagalog… [The Tagalog Movie…]. Publications of the Institute of National Language, vol. 4, no. 11. Manila: Bureau of Printing.

1943

Yutaka Abe, and Hitō Hakengun. Dawn of Freedom: A Toho Super Production. [Manila: Eiga Haikyūsha.] Commemorative volume for Dawn of Freedom, dirs. Abe Yutaka and Gerardo de Leon (Eiga Haikyūsha & Toho, 1944).

1949

Silver Book: A Movie Directory of the Philippines. [City & publisher unkn.].

1952

The Philippine Screen Golden Book Album ng mga Artista [Album of Actors]: Favorite Movie Stars with Autographed Fotos. [Manila: Philippine Screen Publishing Co.]

Salumbides, Vicente. Motion Pictures in the Philippines. Manila: V.S.

1958

United States Business and Defense Services Administration’s Scientific, Motion Picture, and Photographic Products Division. Motion Pictures Abroad: Philippines. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

1967

Feliciano, Gloria D., and Crispulo J. Icban Jr., eds. Philippine Mass Media in Perspective. Quezon City: Capitol. T.D. Agcaoili, “Movies.”

1971

Martinez, Jose Reyes, ed. Nora Aunor: Tagumpay sa Bawat Awit [Triumph in Every Song]. Sitsiritsit Special No. 1. Quezon City: Asia-Pacific Publications. “Book-length fully illustrated biography” featuring various topics plus “her songs, with guitar chords” (cover description).

1972

Quinton, Rustum G. Ang Tunay na Kasaysayan ni Nora Aunor, Superstar [The True History of Nora Aunor, Superstar]. Manila: RMD&A Publishing.

Robledo, Aniceto. Artist Becomes Delegate of God (Artistang Naging Alagad ng Diyos): Completely Authorized and Illustrated Biography of Msgr. Aniceto Robledo. Quezon City: Fidimica Enterprises. Religious testimonial of film actor Aniceto Robledo, known for Ang Lumang Simbahan [The Old Church], dir. Jose Nepomuceno (Malayan Movies, 1928).

1973

Silverio, Julio F. Sulyap sa Buhay ng mga Artistang Pilipino [Glimpse into the Life of Philippine Movie Actors]. Manila: National Book Store.

Vego, Herbert L. Getting to Know Nora. Manila: Herbert L. Vego. On film actor Nora Aunor, published “with permission from Philippines Daily Express” (cover text).

1975

De Vega, Guillermo. Film and Freedom: Movie Censorship in the Philippines. Manila: De Vega. Includes reviews of Tubog sa Ginto [Dipped in Gold], dir. Lino Brocka (Lea Productions, 1970); and Kung Bakit Dugo ang Kulay ng Gabi [Why Blood Is the Color of Night], dir. Celso Ad. Castillo (AA Productions, 1973).

McCarthy, Todd, and Charles Flynn. Kings of the B’s: Working within the Hollywood System. New York: E.P. Dutton. “Eddie Romero.”

1976

Del Rosario, Simeon G. The Subversive Impact: Sakada [Plantation Laborer] of Behn Cervantes (A Critique). Quezon City: Simeon G. del Rosario. A study of Sakada, dir. Behn Cervantes (Sagisag Films, 1976).

Makabenta, Yen, ed. Book of the Philippines. Manila: Research and Analysis Center for Communications and Aardvark Associates. Includes biographies for Nora Aunor, Lamberto V. Avellana, et al.

Mijares, Primitivo. The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos. San Francisco: Union Square Publications. “The Loves of Marcos,” on Ferdinand Marcos’s predilection for movie stars, having married a beauty queen and aspiring film performer. Revised & annotated in 2017.

United States Information Agency Office of Research. Audience Reaction to IMV Films. Series E-7-76. [Washington, DC]: USIA Office of Research. Audience tests in the Philippines, Colombia, and Lebanon.

1977

Alatas, Syed Hussein. The Myth of the Lazy Native: A Study of the Image of the Malays, Filipinos and Javanese from the 16th to the 20th Century and Its Function in the Ideology of Colonial Capitalism. London: Frank Cass.

Joaquin, Nick [as Quijano de Manila]. Amalia Fuentes and Other Etchings. [Manila]: National Book Store.

——— [as Quijano de Manila]. Gloria Diaz and Other Delineations. [Manila]: National Book Store.

——— [as Quijano de Manila]. Joseph Estrada and Other Sketches. [Manila]: National Book Store.

——— [as Quijano de Manila]. Nora Aunor and Other Profiles. [Manila]: National Book Store.

——— [as Quijano de Manila]. Ronnie Poe and Other Silhouettes. [Manila]: National Book Store. “Ronnie Poe” is the nickname of actor, director, and producer Fernando Poe Jr.

Mercado, Monina A., ed. Doña Sisang and Filipino Movies. [Quezon City]: Vera-Reyes. Articles on Narcisa Buencamino de Leon (founder of LVN Pictures), her professional principles, and the films she produced; includes a filmography of LVN productions from 1939 to 1961.

1978

Fernandez, Ricardo V., ed. Film Directory of the Philippines. [Manila: Philippine Motion Pictures Producers Association?].

Hosillos, Lucila V. Movies in a Third World Country. Third World Studies Dependency series no. 15. [Quezon City]: Third World Studies Program [of the] University of the Philippines College of Arts and Sciences.

Infante, J. Eddie. All the Stars in the Sky: An Autobiography. Manila: Front Page Newsmakers. On the actor and director Eddie Infante, whose heyday was during the First Golden Age of the 1950s.

Lent, John A, ed. Broadcasting in Asia and the Pacific: A Continental Survey of Radio and Television. International and Comparative Broadcasting series. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

1979

Momblanco, Maria Carmencita A. “Philippine Motion Pictures, 1908-1958: A Checklist of the First Fifty Years.” Master’s thesis, 2 vols. University of the Philippines.

1981

Del Mundo, Clodualdo Jr. Writing for Film. [Manila]: Communication Foundation for Asia.

Film Blockbusters from the Philippines. [Manila]: Manila International Film Festival. “Dry run” for the regular MIFF, to be held starting the next year.

Lee, Ricky [as Ricardo Lee]. Brutal/Salome. [Quezon City]: Cine Gang. Back-to-back screenplays of Brutal, dir. Marilou Diaz-Abaya (Bancom Audiovision, 1980); and Salome, dir. Laurice Guillen (Bancom Audiovision, 1981). The script of Salome was reprinted and translated in a foreign edition in 1993.

Velarde, Emmie G. All-Star Cast. Quezon City: Cine Gang.

1982

The First Experimental Cinema of the Philippines Annual Short Film Festival: November 16-21, 1982, Manila Film Center, [Cultural Center of the Philippines] Complex. Manila: ECP.

Garcia, Jessie B. Stars in the Raw. Bacolod City: [publisher unkn.].

Kabristante, George Vail. Gabby [Concepcion]. Quezon City: Jingle Clan Publications. On the then-emerging teen star.

Lee, Ricky [as Ricardo Lee]. Moral. [Quezon City]: Seven-Star Productions. Screenplay of Moral, dir. Marilou Diaz-Abaya (Seven Stars Productions, 1982).

Tobias, Mel. Memoirs of an Asian Moviegoer. Hong Kong: South China Morning Post.

1983

ASEAN Country Reports on Film. Manila: Office of Media Affairs [of the] National Media Production Center. “A project of the Working Group on Film of the [Association of Southeast Asian Nations] Committee on Culture and Information” (self-description); includes “The Film Industry in the Philippines.”

Film Academy of the Philippines. Filmography of Filipino Films, 1982. [Manila]: Film Academy of the Philippines. Launch publication for what has been subsequently called the Luna Awards, first held in 1984.

Focus on Filipino Films: A Sampling, 1951-1982. Manila: Manila International Film Festival. Brochure for a special module selected by the Filipino Film Screening Committee and presented during the second MIFF edition, accompanied by freshly struck positive prints subtitled in English & French.

Guerrero, Rafael Ma., ed. Readings in Philippine Cinema. Manila: Experimental Cinema of the Philippines.

Guevara-Fernandez, Pacita, ed. Keeping the Flame Alive: Essays in the Humanities. Diamond Jubilee Publication. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Behn Cervantes’s “Ganyan Lang Talaga Yan [That’s Just How It Is]” describes the Philippine situation as “a large market that can be redirected in its tastes and attitudes so that they [sic] can dictate what types of movies should be made.”

Jimenez, Baby K. Ang True Story ni Guy, Ikalawang Aklat [The True Story of Guy, Volume Two]. Quezon City: Mass Media Promotions. On film actor Nora Aunor; in 2 vols.

———. Ang True Story ni Guy, Unang Aklat [The True Story of Guy, Volume One]. Quezon City: Mass Media Promotions. On film actor Nora Aunor; in 2 vols.

Quirino, Joe. Don Jose [Nepomuceno] and the Early Philippine Cinema. History of the Philippine Cinema series no. 1. Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House. First in the author’s projected 3-volume history series; no other volumes followed.

Rotea, Hermie. Marcos’ Lovey Dovie. Los Angeles: Liberty Publishing. On the affair between then-President Ferdinand E. Marcos and Dovie Beams, leading lady of Maharlika, dir. Jerr Hopper (Roadshow Films International & Solar Films, 1970).

Tiongson, Nicanor G., ed. The Urian Anthology 1970-1979. Quezon City: Manuel L. Morato. Title page descriptor: “selected essays on tradition and innovation in the Filipino cinema of the 1970s by the Manunuri ng Pelikulang Pilipino: with about 550 photos and illustrations and a filmography of Philippine movies, 1970-1979.”

1984

Constantino, Renato. Synthetic Culture and Development. Quezon City: Foundation for Nationalist Studies. Only direct mention of cinema in the nationalist author’s texts (from Patrick D. Flores’s findings), aside from Constantino’s introduction (as publisher) to Bienvenido Lumbera’s Abot-Tanaw: Sulyap at Suri sa Nagbabagong Kultura at Lipunan (1987).

Cruz, Isagani R. Movie Times. Manila: National Book Store.

Garcia, Jessie B. Claudia Zobel: An Untold Story. Iloilo City: [publisher unkn.]. On the short life of the sex-film star.

———. Queen Vi: An Intimate Biography. Bacolod City: Jessie B. Garcia. On film star Vilma Santos; allegedly unauthorized and pulled from distribution after initial sales.

Lee, Ricky [as Ricardo Lee]. Bukas … May Pangarap [Tomorrow … There’ll Be a Dream]. [Quezon City: Markenprint]. Screenplay of Bukas … May Pangarap, dir. Gil Portes (Tri Films, 1984).

Lumbera, Bienvenido. Revaluation: Essays on Philippine Literature, Cinema and Popular Culture. [Quezon City]: Index. Reprinted as Revaluation 1997.

1985

David, Rina, and Pennie Azarcon de la Cruz. Towards Our Own Image: An Alternative Philippine Report on Women and Media. PWRC Pamphlet Series no. 1. [Manila]: Philippine Women’s Research Collective. Continued in Wilhelmina S. Orozco’s Towards Our Own Image.

Deocampo, Nick. Short Film: Emergence of a New Philippine Cinema. Ed. Alfred A. Yuson. Manila: Communication Foundation for Asia. Translated to Spanish as El Cortometraje (1986).

Noriega, Bienvenido M. Jr. Soltero [Bachelor]. Trans. Rolando S. Tinio. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. Screenplay of Soltero, dir. Pio de Castro III (Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, 1984).

Orozco, Wilhelmina S. Towards Our Own Image: An Alternative Philippine Report on Women and Media. PWRC Pamphlet Series no. 2. [Manila]: Philippine Women’s Research Collective. Continued from Rina David and Pennie Azarcon de la Cruz’s Towards Our Own Image.

Thompson, Kristin. Exporting Entertainment: America in the World Film Market, 1907-34. London: British Film Institute Publishing. Describes how the Philippines, as the sole US colony, became the regional center for distribution of Hollywood film prints – which were flawed or easily damaged, since the Orient was regarded as a “junk” market: “90% of the prints from American exchanges were worn almost beyond being showable, with splices, torn sprockets, ends and titles missing” (per an exhibitor’s account).

1986

Del Mundo, Clodualdo Jr., and Jose Mari Magpayo, eds. Philippine Mass Media: A Book of Readings. Manila: Communication Foundation for Asia. Mario A. Hernando, “Against All Odds: The Story of the Filipino Film Industry (1978-1982)”; Bienvenido Lumbera, “Problems in Philippine Film History”; Eduardo Sazon, “Film Distribution and Exhibition.”

Deocampo, Nick. El Cortometraje: Surgimiento de un nuevo cine filipino. Trans. Mark Garner & Matxalen Goiria. Bilbao: Certámen Internacional del Cine Documental y Cortometraje. Spanish translation of Short Film (1985).

Downing, John, ed. Film & Politics in the Third World. New York: Autonomedia. Luis Francia, “Philippine Cinema: The Struggle against Repression.”

Screenwriters Guild of the Philippines. Artista sa Pelikula ’85 / Actors’ Yearbook ’85. [Manila]: Fil-Asia Graphics.

1987

Andres, Tomas D. How to Enjoy a Film Intelligently for Value Education. [Manila]: Our Lady of Manaoag Publishers.

Armes, Roy. Third World Film Making and the West. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Garcellano, Edel E. First Person, Plural: Essays. Quezon City: Edel E. Garcellano.

Lumbera, Bienvenido. Abot-Tanaw: Sulyap at Suri sa Nagbabagong Kultura at Lipunan [Purview: Glancing and Critiquing a Changing Culture and Society]. Quezon City: Linangan ng Kamalayang Makabansa.

1988

Guillermo, Alice. Images of Change: Essays and Reviews. Quezon City: Kalikasan Press.

Lee, Ricky [as Ricardo Lee]. Si Tatang at mga Himala ng Ating Panahon: Koleksyon ng mga Akda [Old Man and the Miracles of Our Time: Collection of Writings]. Quezon City: Bagong Likha Publications. Screenplay of Himala, dir. Ishmael Bernal (Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, 1982), reviews of other films, and interview articles; reprinted in 2009.

1989

Export Trade Promotion, Philippines Bureau of. A Profile on Motion Pictures. Product Profile series. [Manila]: Product Research and Strategy Group, Bureau of Export Trade Promotion, Department of Trade & Industry.

Lumbera, Bienvenido. Pelikula: An Essay on the Philippine Film. [Manila]: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas. Later expanded in the Tuklas Sining series by Lumbera, Agustin Sotto, and Nestor U. Torre.

Reyes, Emmanuel A. Notes on Philippine Cinema. Manila: De La Salle University Press. Includes an interview conducted for the documentary Vic Silayan: An Actor Remembers, dir. Manny Reyes (Manny Reyes, 1984).

Salazar, Zeus A., Agustin Sotto, and Prospero Reyes Covar. Unang Pagtingin sa Pelikulang Bakbakan: Tatlong Sanaysay [A First Glance at the Action Film: Three Essays]. Manila: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas.

1990

AMAUAN Filipino American Multi-Arts Center and Anthology Film Archives. Films by Lino Brocka: A Retrospective, November 14 [to] December 2, 1990, American Film Archives. AMAUAN Notebook series 7.1. New York: AMAUAN Filipino American Multi-Arts Center.

Cultural Center of the Philippines Library. Union Catalog on Philippine Culture: Film. CCP Library Research Guide Series no. 4. Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines Library.

David, Joel. The National Pastime: Contemporary Philippine Cinema. Book edition. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. Revised & updated for a digital edition in 2014.

Lent, John A. The Asian Film Industry. Texas Film Studies Series. Austin: University of Texas Press. “Philippines” (case study).

1991

Goodman, Grant K., ed. Japanese Cultural Policies in Southeast Asia During World War II. New York: MacMillan. Motoe Terami-Wada, “The Japanese Propaganda Corps in the Philippines: Laying the Foundation.”

Infante, J. Eddie. Inside Philippine Movies, 1970-1990: Essays for Students of Philippine Cinema. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.

Ishizaka Kenji, ed. Philippine Film Festival: Fiesta of the Filmmakers. Introducing Southeast Asian Cinema series no. 3. Tokyo: Masaru Inoue.

Reyes, Soledad S., ed. Reading Popular Culture. Quezon City: Office of Research and Publications [of the] Ateneo de Manila University. Papers presented at the First National Conference on Popular Culture at the Ateneo de Manila University on November 17-19, 1988; includes Ruth Elynia Mabanglo, “Mula sa Altar nina Huli at Maria Clara: Imahen ng Babae sa Ilang Dramang Pilipino [From the Altar of (José Rizal characters) Huli and Maria Clara: Images of Women in Selected Philippine Dramas]”; and Soledad S. Reyes, “Women on Television.”

Tiongson, Nicanor G., ed. Tuklas Sining [Art Discovery]: Essays on the Philippine Arts. Manila: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas.

1992

Barte, Gina V., ed. Panahon ng Hapon: Sining sa Digmaan, Digmaan sa Sining [The Japanese Period: Art in War, War in Art]. Studies on Philippine Art and Society, 1942-1945 series. Manila: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas. Exhibition & conference publication, including Agustin Sotto, “War and the Aftermath in Philipine Cinema”; and Motoe Terami-Wada, “Strategy in Culture: Cultural Policy and Propaganda in the Philippines, 1942-1945.”

Del Mundo, Clodualdo Jr. Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag [Manila: In the Claws of Neon], ’Merika [with Gil Jose Quito], at Alyas Raha Matanda [with Herky del Mundo]: Tatlong Dulang Pampelikula [Three Screenplays]. Manila: De La Salle University Press. Screenplays of Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag, dir. Lino Brocka (Cinema Artists, 1975); and ’Merika, dir. Gil Portes (Adrian Films, 1984).

Directory of Filipino Women in Radio, TV & Film Media. [Manila]: National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women, National Printing Office, and Philippine Information Agency.

Jameson, Fredric. The Geopolitical Aesthetic: Cinema and Space in the World System. Perspectives series. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. “Art Naïf and the Admixture of Worlds” is an appreciation of Kidlat Tahimik’s Mababangong Bangungot [Perfumed Nightmare] (Zoetrope Studios, 1977).

Lumbera, Bienvenido. Pelikula: An Essay on the Philippine Film, 1961-1992. Tuklas Sining series. [Manila]: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas. Continuation of Agustin Sotto’s Pelikula: An Essay on the Philippine Film, 1897-1960 and supplemented by Nestor U. Torre’s Pelikula: An Essay on Philippine Film, Touchstones of Excellence.

Reyes, Soledad S., ed. Kritisismo: Mga Teorya at Antolohiya para sa Epektibong Pagtuturo ng Panitikan [Criticism: Theories and an Anthology for the Effective Teaching of Literature]. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. Isagani R. Cruz, “Si Lam-ang, si Fernando Poe Jr., at si Aquino: Ilang Kuro-Kuro tungkol sa Epikong Filipino [(Mythological figure) Lam-ang, (film auteur) Fernando Poe Jr., and (Benigno S.) Aquino (Jr.): A Few Ideas on the Philippine Epic].”

Sotto, Agustin. Pelikula: An Essay on the Philippine Film, 1897-1960. Tuklas Sining series. [Manila]: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas. Continued in Bienvenido Lumbera’s Pelikula: An Essay on the Philippine Film, 1961-1992 and supplemented by Nestor U. Torre’s Pelikula: An Essay on Philippine Film, Touchstones of Excellence.

1993

Fajardo, Deo J. Robin Padilla: Bad Boy ng Showbiz [Bad Boy of Showbiz]. [Manila]: Concept Society. On the controversial lifestyle of a member of the respected Padilla clan.

Gever, Martha, John Greyson, and Pratibha Parmar, eds. Queer Looks: Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Film and Video. New York: Routledge. Nick Deocampo, “Homosexuality as Dissent / Cinema as Subversion: Articulating Gay Consciousness in the Philippines.”

Hernando, Mario A., ed. Lino Brocka: The Artist and His Times. Manila: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas.

Lee, Ricky [as Ricardo Lee]. Salome: A Filipino Filmscript by Ricardo Lee. Trans. Rofel G. Brion. Madison: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Screenplay of Salome, dir. Laurice Guillen (Bancom Audiovision, 1981). Originally published untranslated in 1981.

Maglipon, Jo-Ann Q. Primed: Selected Stories 1972-1992. Reportage on an Archipelago series. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. “MIFFed [Manila International Film Festival]”; “Free the Artist!”; “The Republic of the Philippines vs. Lino Brocka, et al.”; “Canuplin: The Little Tramp Time Left Behind”; “Erap [Joseph Estrada]”; “Phantoms of the Cinema”; “Starlight, Starbright”; “Mega Mother Lily [Monteverde]: Superstar for All Seasons.”

1994

Aitken, Stuart C., and Leo E. Zonn, eds. Place, Power, Situation and Spectacle: A Geography of Film. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Gerald M. Macdonald’s “A Mapping of Cinematic Places: Icons, Ideology, and the Power of (Mis)Representation” provides an assessment of Kidlat Tahimik’s Mababangong Bangungot [Perfumed Nightmare] (Zoetrope Studios, 1977).

Constantino, Ronald K., and Ricardo F. Lo, eds. The Golden Years: Memorable Tagalog Movie Ads 1946-1956 (From the Collection of Danny Dolor). Manila: Danny Dolor.

Diamond Anniversary of Philippine Cinema. Brochure for the 43rd awards ceremony of the Filipino Academy of Movie Arts and Sciences. Manila: [Movie Workers Welfare Fund]. Includes a filmography of Philippine productions from the beginning to 1993 prepared by Lynn Pareja; significant for being the first published listing of Filipino movies made during the 1960s.

Pelikula at Lipunan [Film and Society]: Festival of Filipino Film Classics and Short Films. [Quezon City]: National Commission for Culture and the Arts Cinema Committee, Film Academy of the Philippines, and Movie Workers Welfare Fund.

Pertierra, Raul, and Eduardo F. Ugarte, eds. Cultures and Texts: Representations of Philippine Society. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

Sklar, Robert. Movie-Made America: A Cultural History of American Movies. Revised and updated. New York: Vintage Books. First published as Movie-Made America: A Social History of the American Movie (New York: Random House, 1975); Sklar observed that “because whenever wars were in progress the US government would pressure Hollywood to assist in the war effort, ‘echoes and shadows’ of the Viet Nam conflict could only be provided” via the Blood-Island film cycle initiated by Gerardo de Leon’s Terror Is a Man, a.k.a. Creature from Blood Island (Lynn-Romero Productions & Premiere Productions, 1959), a takeoff from H.G. Wells’s The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896) (from Joel David, “Phantom Limbs in the Body Politic,” Plaridel, vol. 11, no. 1, February 2014).

Tiongson, Nicanor G., ed. Philippine Film. Vol. 8 (of 10 vols.) of CCP [Cultural Center of the Philippines] Encyclopedia of Philippine Art. 1st edition. Manila: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas. 2nd edition’s equivalent volume is titled Film.

Torre, Nestor U. Pelikula: An Essay on Philippine Film, Touchstones of Excellence. Tuklas Sining series. [Manila]: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas. Supplementary to Agustin Sotto’s and Bienvenido Lumbera’s 1992 Pelikula accounts.

1995

Coppola, Eleanor. Notes: On the Making of Apocalypse Now. 1979 (1st printing). London: Faber and Faber. Regarding Apocalypse Now, dir. Francis Ford Coppola (American Zoetrope, 1979).

David, Joel. Fields of Vision: Critical Applications in Recent Philippine Cinema. Book edition. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. Revised & updated for a digital edition in 2014.

Garcia, Fanny A., and Armando Lao, eds. Pitong Teleplay [Seven Teleplays]. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. TV scripts by Ricky Lee, Armando Lao, Lualhati Bautista, Jose F. Bartolome, Rosalie Matilac, Dado C. Lumibao, and Fanny A. Garcia.

Garcia, Jessie B. Showbiz Uncensored. [Iloilo City]: Moviola Publishing House.

Ishizaka Kenji, ed. Symposium on Gerardo de Leon. Tokyo: Japan Foundation & [Association of Southeast Asian Nations] Culture Center.

Lo, Ricardo F. Star Studded. Makati City: Virtusio Books.

Ocampo, Ambeth. Bonifacio’s Bolo. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. Includes “The Nora Aunor Mystique.”

Reyes, Soledad S. Pagbasa ng Panitikan at Kulturang Popular: Piling Sanaysay, 1976-1996 [Reading Literature and Popular Culture: Selected Essays, 1976-1996]. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.

Sotto, Agustin, and Marilou Diaz-Abaya. Political and Social Issues in Philippine Film: Two Perspectives. Political and Social Change Working Paper Series, No. 12. Canberra: Department of Political and Social Change, Division of Politics and International Relations, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

Vergara, Benito M. Displaying Filipinos: Photography and Colonialism in Early 20th Century Philippines. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

1996

Flores, Patrick D. Sites of Review: Critical Practice in Media. San Pablo City: Oraciones.

Kenny, James, and Isabel Enriquez Kenny. Making Documentaries & News Features in the Philippines. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing.

Kintanar, Thelma B., “and Associates.” The University of the Philippines Cultural Dictionary for Filipinos. Quezon City & Pasig City: University of the Philippines Press & Anvil Publishing, 1996. “Communication and Mass Media.”

Reyes, Emmanuel A. Malikhaing Pelikula: Mga Sanaysay Tungkol sa Pelikulang Pilipino [Creative Film: Essays on Philippine Cinema]. Makati: Media Plus. Includes the screenplays of Dreaming Filipinos (Manny Reyes Productions, 1991) and Suwapings [The Laughing Barrio] (Safari Films, 1994), both directed by the author [as Manny Reyes].

Trzcinski, Kevin, and Owen Hughes. Philippines Media Yearbook. Hong Kong: Cornerstone Associates Ltd.

1997

Deocampo, Nick. Beyond the Mainstream: The Films of Nick Deocampo. Ed. Lolita R. Lacuesta. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. Production notes and essays on short filmmaking, plus the screenplays of the following short films by the author: “Oliver” (Deocampo, 1983); “Children of the Regime” (Deocampo, 1985); “Revolutions Happen Like Refrains in a Song” (Deocampo, 1987); “Ynang-Bayan [Mother-Country]: To Be a Woman Is to Live in a Time of War” (Deocampo, 1991); “Memories of Old Manila” ([Movie Workers Welfare Fund] Film Institute, 1993); “Isaak” (Metro Manila Film Festival Executive Committee, 1994); and “Sex Warriors and the Samurai” (Deocampo, 1995).

Flores, Patrick D., and Cecilia Sta. Maria de la Paz. Sining at Lipunan [Art and Society]. Aklat Sanyata series. Quezon City: Sentro ng Wikang Filipino – Diliman. 2nd edition (2014) is listed as de la Paz & Flores.

Lumbera, Bienvenido. Revaluation 1997: Essays on Philippine Literature, Cinema and Popular Culture. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House. Reprint of 1984 edition with additional 22 articles and interview.

Movie and Television Review and Classification Board. Implementing Rules and Regulations Pursuant to Section 3(a) of Presidential Decree No. 1986: The Movie and Television Review and Classification Board (MTRCB). Quezon City: Office of the President, Republic of the Philippines.

1998

David, Joel. Wages of Cinema: Film in Philippine Perspective. Book edition. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Revised & updated for a digital edition in 2014.

De la Cruz, Enrique B., and Pearlie Rose S. Baluyut, eds. Confrontations, Crossings, and Convergence: Photographs of the Philippines and the United States, 1898-1998. Los Angeles: Asian American Studies Center Press. A “companion to the photographic display [titled] Confrontations, Crossings and Convergence, on exhibit at UCLA’s Fowler Museum from August 19, 1998 to January 3, 1999[, as] curated by Enrique B. de la Cruz and Pearlie Rose Baluyut of UCLA’s Asian American Studies Center and art history department respectively, and Rico Reyes, an innovative, San Francisco-based artist” (from Augusto Fauni Espiritu’s review in the Journal of Asian American Studies).

Del Mundo, Clodualdo Jr. Native Resistance: Philippine Cinema and Colonialism, 1898-1941. Manila: De La Salle University Press.

Garcellano, Edel E. Interventions. Manila: Polytechnic University of the Philippines Press.

Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines and Related Laws: With Movie and Television Review and Classification Board (PD 1986), Videogram Regulatory Board (PD 1987), Children’s Television Act of 1997 and Others. Manila: Central Book Supply.

Kasaysayan at Pelikula [History and Film]: 100 Years of Cinema in the Philippines. Manila: National Centennial Commission, Presidential Management Staff, and Movie and Television Review and Classification Board.

Lee, Ricky. Trip to Quiapo: Scriptwriting Manual. Quezon City: Bagong Likha Publishing.

Lim, Jonah Añonuevo. Creative Imaging: An Introduction to Film. [Dumaguete City]: Jonah Lim.

Murray, Raymond. Images in the Dark: An Encyclopedia of Gay and Lesbian Film and Video (Revised and Updated). London: Titan Books. Originally published 1994; includes an entry on Macho Dancer, dir. Lino Brocka (Award Films, Special People Productions, & Viva Films, 1988).

The National Artists of the Philippines. Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines & Anvil Publishing, 1998. 1972-97 coverage, followed by The National Artists of the Philippines 1999-2003 (2003). Lena S. Pareja, “Lamberto V. Avellana (Theater/Film, 1976): An Innate Love for Truth and Beauty”; Amadis Ma. Guerrero, “Gerardo de Leon (Film, 1982): Views from the Master Filmmaker”; Ramil Digal Gulle, “Rolando S. Tinio (Theater/Literature, 1997): The Song of Rolando: Creative Genius.” The entry “Lino Brocka (Film/Broadcast Arts, 1997): Human Being, Artist, Filipino” contains the following tagline credits: the Ramon Magsaysay Awards Foundation program brochure (September 1985), Mario A. Hernando, and Marilou Diaz-Abaya.

Patajo-Legasto, Priscelina, ed. Filipiniana Reader: A Companion Anthology of Filipiniana Online. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Open University. Clodualdo del Mundo Jr., “Komiks: An Industry, a Potent Medium, Our National ‘Book,’ and Pablum of Art Appreciation” & “Philippine Television: A History of Politics and Commerce”; Patrick D. Flores, “Philippine Cinema and Society”; Bienvenido Lumbera, “Brocka, Bernal & Co.: The Arrival of New Filipino Cinema” & “Problems in Philippine Film History”; Soledad S. Reyes, “The Philippine Komiks”; Nicanor G. Tiongson, “Becoming Filipino: 1565-1898”; Rolando B. Tolentino, “‘Inangbayan’ (Mother-Nation) in Lino Brocka’s Bayan Ko: Kapit sa Patalim (My Country: Clutching a Knife [Malaya Films & Stephan Films], 1985) and Orapronobis (Fight for Us [Bernadette Associates International], 1989).”

Tobias, Mel. One Hundred Acclaimed Tagalog Movies: Sineng Mundo [Film World], Best of Philippine Cinema. Vancouver: Peanut Butter Publishing.

1999

Buensalido, Joy, and Abe Florendo. 100 Women of the Philippines: Celebrating Filipino Womanhood in the New Millennium. Makati City: Buensalido & Associates. Including Ophelia Alcantara-Dimalanta, Zeneida Amador, Nora Aunor, Marilou Diaz-Abaya, Laurice Guillen, Lea Salonga, Vilma Santos, Sharon Cuneta, Regine Velasquez, Monique Wilson, et al.

Coronel, Sheila S., ed. From Loren to Marimar: The Philippine Media in the 1990s. Quezon City: Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism.

Cultural Center of the Philippines in Cooperation with the Centennial Commission. The CCP Centennial Honors for the Arts. Manila: CCP. Includes entries for Nora Aunor, Daisy H. Avellana, Ishmael Bernal, Salvador F. Bernal, Amelia L. Bonifacio, Ryan Cayabyab, Benjamin H. Cervantes, Manuel Conde, Ernani J. Cuenco, Mike de Leon, Narcisa B. de Leon, et al.

Diaz-Abaya, Marilou. José Rizal. Quezon City: University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication. Commemorative volume for José Rizal, dir. Marilou Diaz-Abaya (GMA Films, 1998).

Lanot, Marra PL. Deja Vu & Other Essays. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

———. The Trouble with Nick [Joaquin] & Other Profiles. Philippine Writers series. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Includes “That Gal Named Guy” (nickname of film actor Nora Aunor).

Lee, Ricky [as Ricardo Lee], Jun Lana, & Peter Ong. Ang Screenplay ng José Rizal [The Screenplay of José Rizal]. Makati City : Butz Jimenez and Jimmy Duavit for GMA Network. Screenplay of José Rizal, dir. Marilou Diaz-Abaya (GMA Films, 1998).

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Empire and Memory: Repercussions and Evocations of the 1899 Philippine-American War. [New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum.]

Sulong Pilipina! Sulong Pilipinas! [Forward Filipina! Forward Philippines!] A Compilation of Filipino Women Centennial Awardees. Manila: Women Sector [of the] National Centennial Commission. Includes Liwayway A. Arceo, Fides S. Asensio, Nora Aunor, Daisy H. Avellana, Susana C. de Guzman, Narcisa B. de Leon, et al.

2000

Del Mundo, Clodualdo Jr., and Mike de Leon. Rizal [and] Bayaning 3rd World [3rd World Hero]: Dalawang Dulang Pampelikula [Two Screenplays]. Manila: De La Salle University Press. Screenplays of Rizal, dir. Mike de Leon (unfinished); and Bayaning 3rd World, dir. Mike de Leon (Cinema Artists, 2000).

Grossman, Andrew, ed. Queer Asian Cinema: Shadows in the Shade. New York: Harrington Park Press. Co-published simultaneously as Journal of Homosexuality’s vol. 39, nos. 3-4 issues; Rolando B. Tolentino, “Transvestites and Transgressions: Panggagaya [Mimicry] in Philippine Gay Cinema.”

Hau, Caroline S. Necessary Fictions: Philippine Literature and the Nation, 1946-1980. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. “Alien Nation” discusses the characters of Quiroga in José Rizal’s Noli Me Tángere [Touch Me Not] (1887), Ah Tek in Edgardo M. Reyes’s Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag [In the Claws of Neon] (1967), and Wei-fung in Ricardo Lee’s short story “Huwag, Huwag Mong Kukuwentuhan ang Batang si Wei Fung [Don’t, Don’t Tell Stories to Young Wei Fung]” (1969) – works and/or authors associated with films; Necessary Fictions is complemented by another text by the same author, titled On the Subject of the Nation: Filipino Writings from the Margins, 1981-2004 (2004).

Hedman, Eva-Lotta E., and John T. Sidel. Philippine Politics and Society in the Twentieth Century: Colonial Legacies, Postcolonial Trajectories. Politics in Asia series. London: Routledge. Discusses the “mockery of mimicry” in the films of Joey de Leon and Rene Requiestas.

Kalaw-Tirol, Lorna. Above the Crowd. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. More showbiz-focused than Public Faces, Private Lives.

———. Public Faces, Private Lives. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. Emphasizes less prominent celebrities than Above the Crowd.

Lacaba, Jose F., ed. The Films of ASEAN. Quezon City: Association of Southeast Asian Nations Committee on Culture and Information. Clodualdo del Mundo Jr., “Philippines.”

Lumbera, Bienvenido. Writing the Nation / Pag-akda ng Bansa. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Revision of several previously anthologized film articles.

Rafael, Vicente L. White Love and Other Events in Filipino History. American Encounters/Global Interactions series. Durham: Duke University Press. “Patronage, Pornography, and Youth: Ideology and Spectatorship during the Early Marcos Years.”

Tolentino, Rolando B., ed. Geopolitics of the Visible: Essays on Philippine Film Cultures. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.

———. Richard Gomez at ang Mito ng Pagkalalake, Sharon Cuneta at ang Perpetwal na Birhen at Iba Pang Sanaysay ukol sa Bida sa Pelikula Bilang Kultural na Texto [Richard Gomez and the Myth of Masculinity, Sharon Cuneta and the Perpetual Virgin and Other Essays about Movie Stars as Cultural Texts]. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing.

Varnedoe, Kirk, Paola Antonelli, and Joshua Siege, eds. Modern Contemporary: Art Since 1980 at MOMA. New York: Museum of Modern Art. Features Bona, dir. Lino Brocka (NV Productions, 1980).

2001

Bernard, Carlo, and Doug Miro. The Great Raid. [City & publisher unkn.]. Screenplay of The Great Raid, dir. John Dahl (Miramax, Marty Katz Productions, and Lawrence Bender Productions, 2005).

Cajayon, Gene, John Manal Castro, and Dawn Bohulano Mabalon. The Debut: The Making of a Filipino American Film. Chicago: Tulitos. Regarding The Debut, dir. Gene Cajayon (5 Card Productions, Celestial Pictures, Center for Asian American Media, National Asian American Telecommunications Association, Visual Communication, 2000).

Cordero-Fernando, Gilda, and M.G. Chaves. Pinoy Pop Culture. [Manila]: Bench/Suyen Corp., G.C. Fernando, and M.G. Chaves.

Cowie, Peter. The Apocalypse Now Book. 2000 (1st edition). Boston, Mass.: Da Capo Press. “The making of Francis Ford Coppola’s epic [American Zoetrope, 1979], based on unprecedented access to his private archives,… with 80 photographs, and exclusive detailed descriptions of material restored by Coppola for Apocalypse Now Redux (2001)” (cover description).

Garcellano, Edel E. Knife’s Edge: Selected Essays. Ed. Caroline S. Hau. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

Goquingco, Leonor Orosa. Curtain Call: Selected Reviews, 1957-2000. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Includes reviews of performances of film actor Nora Aunor at the Philippine Educational Theater Association.

Hanan, David, ed. Film in South East Asia: Views from the Region (Essays on Film in 10 South East Asia – Pacific Countries). Hanoi: Southeast Asia-Pacific Audio Visual Archive Association. Agustin Sotto, “Philippines: A Brief History of Philippine Cinema.”

Lo, Ricardo F. Conversations with Ricky Lo. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing. Followed by Conversations Pa More (2016).

Mella-Salvador, Shaira, Raymond Lee, and Laurice Guillen. Tanging Yaman [A Change of Heart], the Film Book: Screenplay. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, ABS-CBN Consumer Products & Star Cinema. Screenplay of Tanging Yaman, dir. Laurice Guillen (Star Cinema, 2001).

Orellana, Ricky. Mowelfund Film Institute Catalog. Quezon City: [Movie Workers Welfare Fund] Film Institute.

Shiel, Mark, and Tony Fitzmaurice, eds. Cinema and the City: Film and Urban Societies in a Global Context. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Rolando B. Tolentino, “Cityscape: The Capital Infrastructuring and Technologization of Manila.”

Tiongson, Nicanor G., ed. The Urian Anthology 1980-1989. Manila: Antonio P. Tuviera. Includes filmography of 1980-89 Philippine film releases.

Tolentino, Rolando B. National/Transnational: Subject Formation and Media in and on the Philippines. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. “‘Inangbayan’ (Mother-Nation) in Lino Brocka’s Bayan Ko: Kapit sa Patalim (My Country: Clutching a Knife [Malaya Films & Stephan Films], 1985) and Orapronobis (Fight for Us [Bernadette Associates International], 1989)”; “Issues of the ‘Filipino/a’ in Asia-Pacific American Media Arts”; “Kidlat Tahimik in the Rhetoric of First World Theory”; “Subcontracting Imagination and Imageries of Bodies and Nations.”

2002

De la Torre, Visitacion “Chit” R. Cultural Icons of the Philippines. Makati City: Tower Book House.

Feng, Peter X., ed. Screening Asian Americans. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. Rolando B. Tolentino, “Identity and Difference in ‘Filipino/a American’ Media Arts.”

Holt, Elizabeth Mary. Colonizing Filipinas: Nineteenth-Century Representations of the Philippines in Western Historiography. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. “History as Visual Spectacle”; “Filipinas and Photography.”

King, Jenny. Great & Famous Filipinos. [Cainta, Rizal]: Worldlink Marketing Corp. Includes a number of pop-culture figures.

Parks, Lisa, and Shanti Kumar, eds. Planet TV: A Global Television Studies Reader. New York: New York University Press. José B. Capino, “Soothsayers, Politicians, Lesbian Scribes: The Philippine Movie Talk Show.”

Pulido, Rod. The Flip Side: A Filipino American Comedy. Chicago: Tulitos. Screenplay of The Flip Side, dir. Rod Pulido (Pure Pinoy, 2001).

Rodell, Paul A. Culture and Customs of the Philippines. Culture and Customs of Asia series. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. “Festivals, Theater, Film, Media, and Other Entertainment.”

Shaw, Angel Velasco, and Luis H. Francia, eds. Vestiges of War: The Philippine-American War and the Aftermath of an Imperial Dream, 1899-1999. New York: New York University Press. In conjunction with an exhibit titled Vestiges of War, “a project of Asian/Pacific/American Studies Program and Institute, New York University”; includes Nick Deocampo, “Imperialist Fictions: The Filipino in the Imperialist Imaginary.”

Tam Kwok-kan, Wimal Dissanayake, and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds. Sights of Contestation: Localism, Globalism and Cultural Production in Asia and the Pacific. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press. Rolando B. Tolentino, “Subcontracting Imagination and Imageries of Bodies and Nations: The Philippines in Contemporary Transnational Asia Pacific Cinemas.”

Vasudev, Aruna, Latika Padgaonkar, and Rashmi Doraiswamy, eds. Being & Becoming: The Cinemas of Asia. New Delhi: MacMillan. Clodualdo del Mundo Jr., “Philippines: Liver & Alive (1990s-2001)”; Luis H. Francia, “Side-stepping History: Beginnings to 1980s.”

Villasanta, Boy [as Julianito “Boy” Villasanta]. Tio Ticong: Pelikula at Pulitika (Vicente Salumbides) [Uncle Ticong: Film and Politics (of) Vicente Salumbides]. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House.

Young Critics Circle[’s Film Desk]. Sampúng Taóng Sine [Ten Film Years]: Philippine Cinema 1990-1999. Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts.

2003

Guneratne, Antony R., and Wimal Dissanayake, eds. Rethinking Third Cinema. New York: Routledge. Sumita S. Chakravarty’s “The Erotics of History: Gender and Transgression in the New Asian Cinema” closes with a discussion of Ishmael Bernal’s Himala [Miracle] (Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, 1982) as an example of the “relationship between eroticism and spirituality, [exploring] its implications for Filipino constructions of history and identity.”

Gutierrez, Ben Paul B., ed. Cases on Arts and Culture Management in the Philippine Setting. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Manuel C. Dioquino Jr., “E-mail Conversations with Keith [Sicat] and Sari [Dalena]” (married film directors).

Laurel, Pedro C. Jr., Ramonfelipe A. Sarmiento, and Rody [as Rodolfo C.] Vera. Tatlong Dulang Pampelikula [Three Screenplays]. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Pedro C. Laurel Jr., “Ang Diego at Gabriela: Lagablab sa Ilocos [The (story of) Diego and Gabriela: Firestorm in Ilocos]”; Ramonfelipe A. Sarmiento, “Batingaw [Chime]”; Rody [as Rodolfo C.] Vera, “Senyor Pascual.”

Lico, Gerard. Edifice Complex: Power, Myth, and Marcos State Architecture. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. “The Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex,” with emphasis on the catastrophic construction history of the Manila Film Center.

The National Artists of the Philippines 1999-2003. Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines & Anvil Publishing, 2003. Preceded by National Artists of the Philippines (1998). Justino Dormiendo, “Ishmael Bernal (Film, 2001): The Finest Poet of Philippine Cinema”; Lena S. Pareja, “Eddie Romero (Film, 2003): World-Class Filmmaker.”

Rivera, Frank G., and Mars Ravelo. Frank G. Rivera’s Darna, Etc.: Screenplays Based on Characters Created by Mars Ravelo. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House. Adaptations by Frank G. Rivera of Mars Ravelo stories, including two produced films: Darna, dir. Joel Lamangan (Viva Films, 1991); and Dyesebel, dir. Emmanuel H. Borlaza (Viva Films, 1995; co-written with Borlaza).

Shohat, Ella, and Robert Stam, eds. Multiculturalism, Postcoloniality, and Transnational Media. Rutgers Depth of Field Series. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. Talitha Espiritu, “Multiculturalism, Dictatorship, and Cinema Vanguards: Philippine and Brazilian Analogies.”

Tobias, Mel. Life Letters: Stories of a Wanderer. Vancouver: New Hogarath Press.

Zafra, Jessica. Twisted Flicks. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing.

2004

De Guzman, Nestor, and Albert M. Sunga, eds. Nora Aunor: Through the Years…. San Juan City: Ace Entertainment. Commemorative volume for the Through the Years concert.

Garcia, Jessie B. A Movie Album Quizbook. Iloilo City: Erehwon Books & Magazines.

Presidential Decree No. 1986 Creating the Movie & Television Review and Classification Board and Implementing Rules and Regulations, 2004. [Manila]: MTRCB.

Tadiar, Neferti X.M. [as Neferti Xina M. Tadiar]. Fantasy-Production: Sexual Economies and Other Philippine Consequences for the New World Order. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. “Himala, Miracle [dir. Ishmael Bernal (Regal Films, 1980)]: The Heretical Potential of Nora Aunor’s Star Power.”

Tiongson, Nicanor G., and Violeda A. Umali, eds. Critical Voice in Media Studies. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 1, no. 1. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines. José B. Capino, “Prosthetic Hysteria: Staging the Cold War in Filipino/American Docudrama”; Johven [as Jovenal] Velasco, “Filipino Film Melodrama of the Late 1950s: Two Case Studies of Accommodation of Hollywood Genre Models”; Anne Marie G. de Guzman, “Philippine Experimental Film Practice: Influences and Directions through the Films of Roxlee.”

Tolentino, Rolando B. Si Darna, ang Mahal na Birhen ng Peñafrancia, si Pepsi Paloma [Darna, the Blessed Virgin of Peñafrancia, (and) Pepsi Paloma]. Kulturang Popular Series No. 3. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing.

———. Paghahanap ng Virtual na Identidad [The Search for Virtual Identity]. Kulturang Popular Series No. 5. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing.

2005

De Guzman, Nestor, ed. Si Nora Aunor sa mga Noranian: Mga Paggunita at Pagtatapat [Nora Aunor to the Noranians: Remembrances and Confessions]. Quezon City: Milflores Publishing.

Deocampo, Nick. Films from a “Lost” Cinema: A Brief History of Cebuano Films. Quezon City: [Movie Workers Welfare Fund] Film Institute.

Tolentino, Rolando B., ed. Media and Popular Culture. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 2, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines. Emil Flores, “The Concept of the Superhero in Filipino Films.”

Vera, Noel. Critic after Dark: A Review of Philippine Cinema. Singapore: BigO Books.

2006

Arriola, Joyce L. Postmodern Filming of Literature: Sources, Contexts, and Adaptations. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House.

Beller, Jonathan. Acquiring Eyes: Philippine Visuality, Nationalist Struggle, and the World-Media System. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. “Directing the Real: Orapronobis [Fight for Us, dir. Lino Brocka (Bernadette Associates International, 1989)] against Philippine Totalitarianism (2000)”; “Third Cinema in a Global Frame: Curacha[: Ang Babaeng Walang Pahinga / A Woman without Rest, dir. Chito Roño (Regal Films, 1998)], Yahoo! and Manila by Night [dir. Ishmael Bernal (Regal Films, 1980)].”

Ciecko, Anne Tereska, ed. Contemporary Asian Cinema: Popular Culture in a Global Frame. Asian Cinema series. New York: Berg. José B. Capino, “Philippines: Cinema and Its Hybridity (Or You’re Nothing but a Second-Rate, Trying Hard Copycat).”

David, Joel, ed. Proceedings of the Whither the Orient: Asians in Asian and Non-Asian Cinema Conference, Kimdaejung Convention Center, Gwangju, Korea, 28-29 October 2006. Seoul: Asia Culture Forum.

Deocampo, Nick, ed. Lost Films of Asia. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing.

Deza, Alfonso B. Mythopoeic Poe: Understanding the Masa as Audience through the Films of Fernando Poe Jr. Manila: Great Books Publications.

Dimaranan, Irma V. Naglalayag [Silent Passage]. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Screenplay of Naglalayag, dir. Maryo J. de los Reyes (Angora Films, 2004).

Encanto, Georgina, ed. Media and History. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 3, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines. Michael Hawkins, “The Colonial Past in the Postcolonial Present: Eddie Romero’s Cavalry Command [Cirio H. Santiago Film Organization & Premiere Productions, 1958]”; Joyce Arriola, “The Impact of United States Colonization on the Rizalian Tradition in Cinema and Literature: A View of the Popular Arts as Postcolonial Historiography.”

Guardiola, Juan. El Imaginario colonial: Fotografia en Filipinas durante el periodo Español 1860-1898 [The Colonial Imaginary: Photography in the Philippines during the Spanish Period 1860-1898]. Barcelona: Casa Asia.

Halili, Servando D. Jr. Iconography of the New Empire: Race and Gender Images and the American Colonization of the Philippines. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

Higgins, Steve. Still Moving: The Film and Media Collections of the Museum of Modern Art. New York: Museum of Modern Art. Features Bona, dir. Lino Brocka (NV Productions, 1980).

Isaac, Allan Punzalan. American Tropics: Articulating Filipino America. Critical American Studies Series. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Includes discussions of Philippines-set mid-century Hollywood productions as well as of Andrew Cunanan, subject of several films & TV specials as the spree killer whose last victim was Gianni Versace.

Kramer, Paul A. The Blood of Government: Race, Empire, the United States, and the Philippines. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Includes accounts of Dean C. Worcester’s activities and banning in the Philippines of the newsreel coverage of the heavyweight championship fight between Jack Johnson and James J. Jeffries, where Johnson (a black man) defeated his white contender.

Lehman, Peter, ed. Pornography and Culture. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. José B. Capino, “Asian College Girls and Oriental Men with Bamboo Poles: Reading Asian Pornography.”

Pasadilla, Gloria O., ed. The Global Challenge in Services Trade: A Look at Philippine Competitiveness. Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies and German Technical Cooperation. Gloria O. Pasadilla and Angelina M. Lantin, “Audiovisual Services Sector: Can the Philippines Follow ‘Bollywood’?”

Pilapil, Pilar V. The Woman without a Face: The Life Story of Pilar Pilapil. Pasig City: Pilar Pilapil Foundation. Autobiography of the beauty queen and actor.

Torres-Yu, Rosario, ed. Kilates: Panunuring Pampanitikan ng Pilipinas [Appraisal: Critical Literature of the Philippines]. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Isagani R. Cruz, “Si Lam-ang, si Fernando Poe Jr., at si Aquino: Ilang Kuro-Kuro tungkol sa Epikong Filipino [(Mythological figure) Lam-ang, (film auteur) Fernando Poe Jr., and (Benigno S.) Aquino (Jr.): A Few Ideas on the Philippine Epic].”

2007

Almario, Virgilio S., ed. 101 Filipino Icons. Quezon City: Adarna House.

Avecilla, Victor, and Josefina Santos, eds. Media and Freedom. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 4, no. 1. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines. Armida Vallejo Santiago, “The Liberative Role of Discourse in Articulating Women’s Issues and Concerns in Filipino Melodramatic Films from 1990 to 2000”; Leticia Tojos, “Empowering Marginalized Filipinos Through Participatory Video Production.”

Baumgärtel, Tilman, ed. Kino-Sine: Philippine-German Cinema Relations. Makati City: Goethe-Institut Manila.

Deocampo, Nick. Cine: Spanish Influences on Early Cinema in the Philippines. Vol. 1 of Reflections on One Hundred Years of Cinema in the Philippines series. Manila: Cinema Values Reorientation Program, National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Succeeded by Film (2011) and Eiga (2016).

Fabros, David. Piolo, Believing: A Pictorial Biography of Piolo Pascual. Quezon City: Vibal Foundation. On the contemporary producer & actor.

Film Development Council of the Philippines. Philippine Film Catalogue. Pasig City: Film Development Council of the Philippines.

Fujiwara, Chris, ed. The Little Black Book [of] Movies: Over a Century of the Greatest Films, Stars, Scenes, Speeches and Events that Rocked the Movie World. London: Cassell Illustrated. “Part expert selection of [1,000] seminal moments, part glorious celebration of 100 years of cinema” (product description); includes contributions by Nick Deocampo and Noel Vera.

Malone, Peter, ed. Through a Catholic Lens: Religious Perspectives of 19 Film Directors from Around the World. Communication, Culture, and Religion Series. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Nicasio Cruz, “The Legacy of Lino Brocka.”

Marchetti, Gina, and Tan See Kam, eds. Hong Kong Film, Hollywood and the New Global Cinema. London: Routledge. Bliss Cua Lim, “Generic Ghosts: Remaking the New ‘Asian Horror Film.’”

Orsal, Cesar D. Movie Queen: Pagbuo ng Mito at Kapangyarihang Kultural ng Babae sa Lipunan [Formation of the Myth and Cultural Dominance of Women in Society]. Quezon City: New Day Publishers.

Tolentino, Rolando B. Sipat Kultura: Tungo sa Mapagpalayang Pagbabasa, Pag-aaral at Pagtuturo ng Panitikan [Culture View: Toward the Liberative Reading, Study and Teaching of Literature]. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.

Villasanta, Boy. Exposé: Peryodismong Pampelikula sa Pilipinas [Movie Journalism in the Philippines]. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House.

Yeatter, Bryan L. Cinema of the Philippines: A History and Filmography, 1897-2005. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

2008

Aguila, Almond Pilar, Danilo Araña Arao, Alfonso Deza, Lourdes Portus, and Fernando Paragas, eds. Proceedings of the 8th ASEAN [Association of Southeast Asian Nations] Inter-University Conference on Social Development. CD-ROM format. Quezon City: University of the Philippines, Union Network International – Asia and Pacific, Free Trade Alliance, & National University of Singapore. Sheryl Rose M. Andes, “A Peek at the Winners of the Most Gender-Sensitive Film Awards of the Metro Manila Film Festival”; David R. Corpuz, “Subverting Zsa-Zsa Zaturnnah: A Critique of the Original Graphic Novel and Stage and Film Adaptations of Ang Kagila-gilalas na Pakikipagsapalaran ni Zsa-Zsa Zaturnnah [The Spectacular Adventures of Zsa-Zsa Zaturnnah]”; Joel David, “The Cold War and Marcos-Era Cinema in the Philippines”; Jongsuk Ham, “Online Games and Gender Issues in South Korea and the Philippines”; Roy Nicolas R. Molon Jr., “Women in a Better Light”; Danny Yu, “Gun-Toting Orientals: Global and Local Media Coverage of Andrew Cunanan and Cho Seung Hui.”

Carpio, Rustica C. Shuttling through Stage and Screen. Manila: Far Eastern University Publications. Veteran performer’s memoir.

Deocampo, Nick, ed. Sinegabay: A Film Study Guide. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing.

Enriquez, Elizabeth L. Appropriation of Colonial Broadcasting: A History of Early Radio in the Philippines, 1922-1946. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Includes a CD-ROM of available audio samples.

Fernandez, Marie P. My Life with My Brother Rudy Fernandez. [City unkn.]: Marie P. Fernandez. On the late action star, son of film director Gregorio Fernandez.

Garcia, J. Neil C. Philippine Gay Culture: Binabae to Bakla, Silahis to MSM [Invert to Gay, Bisexual to Men Who Have Sex with Men]. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Reprint of Philippine Gay Culture, the Last Thirty Years: Binabae to Bakla, Silahis to MSM (1996). Mentions problematic depictions of queer sexualities in Philippine commercial cinema.

Holmlund, Chris, ed. American Cinema of the 1990s. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. José B. Capino, “Cinema and the Usable Past.”

Martin, Fran, Peter A. Jackson, Mark McLelland, and Audrey Yue, eds. AsiaPacifiQueer: Rethinking Genders and Sexualities. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Ronald Baytan, “Bading na Bading [Really Queer]: Evolving Identities in Philippine Cinema.”

Orteza, Bibeth. Dolphy: Hindi Ko Ito Narating Mag-isa [I Did Not Attain This by Myself]. Quezon City: Kaizz Ventures. Authorized biography of actor-producer Rodolfo Vera Quizon, a.k.a. Dolphy.

Patajo-Legasto, Priscelina, ed. Philippine Studies: Have We Gone Beyond St. Louis? Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Joel David, “Awake in the Dark: Philippine Film during the Marcos Era”; Eleanor Sarah D. Reposar, “Carlo Vergara’s Zsazsa Zaturnnah and the Tradition of Subversion in Philippine Komiks”; Johven [as Jovenal] D. Velasco, “‘Feminized’ Heroes and ‘Masculinized’ Heroines: Changing Gender Roles in Contemporary Phiippine Cinema?”

Perdon, Renato. Footnotes to Philippine History. Manila: Manila Prints. Includes a citation of Himala [Miracle], dir. Ishmael Bernal (Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, 1982), in discussing religious belief.

Remoto, Danton. Rampa: Mga Sanaysay [Sashay: Essays]. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. Includes discourses on Freddie Aguilar, Nora Aunor, Ishmael Bernal, Darna, Joel Lamangan, Manila by Night [dir. Ishmael Bernal (Regal Films, 1980)], and Miss Saigon.

Samson, Laura, Brenda V. Fajardo, Cecilia B. Garrucho, Lutgardo L. Labad, and Ma. Gloriosa Santos Cabangon. A Continuing Narrative on Philippine Theater: The Story of PETA (Philippine Educational Theater Association). Quezon City: Philippine Educational Theater Association. “PETA’s Foray into Broadcast Theater.”

San Juan, E. Jr. From Globalization to National Liberation: Essays of Three Decades. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. “Allegories of National Liberation” discusses Savage Acts and Fairs – possibly Savage Acts, dir. Pennee Bender, Joshua Brown, and Andrea Ades Vasquez (American Social History Productions, 1995) – as well as Lino Brocka’s opposition to Imelda Marcos’s edifice complex; similar passages appear in a number of earlier books by the author.

Sarmenta, Severino R. Jr., ed. Movies that Matter: A Festschrift in Honor of [film critic & professor] Nicasio D. Cruz, S.J. [Quezon City]: Office of Research and Publications, Loyola Schools, Ateneo de Manila University.

Tiongson, Nicanor G. The Cinema of Manuel Conde. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House. On the director, producer, and actor a.k.a. Juan Urbano, including a filmography of his productions.

Yu-Jose, Lydia N., ed. The Past, Love, Money and Much More: Philippines-Japan Relations since the End of the Second World War. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. Tito Genova Valiente, “The Japanese in the Filipino Cinematic Space.”

2009

Arao, Danilo, ed. Media and Communication Discourse. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 6, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines. Jose Gutierrez III, “Images of the Mother in Lino Brocka Films: 1970-1991.”

Avellana, Daisy Hontiveros. The Drama of It: A Life on Film and Theater. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. Stage & film performer’s memoir of her life with Lamberto V. Avellana.

Lee, Ricky. Si Tatang at mga Himala ng Ating Panahon: Koleksyon ng mga Akda [Old Man and the Miracles of Our Time: Collection of Writings]. Special edition. Quezon City: Writers Studio Foundation. Screenplay of Himala, dir. Ishmael Bernal (Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, 1982), reviews of other films, and interview articles; reprinted [as Ricardo Lee] from 1988.

Lico, Gerard. PA(ng)LABAS: Architecture + Cinema – Projection of Filipino Space in Film. Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts.

Lim, Bliss Cua. Translating Time: Cinema, the Fantastic, and Temporal Critique. Durham: Duke University Press. The book “interweaves scholarship on visuality with postcolonial historiography” (Duke University Press website) and discusses horror samples including Itim [The Rites of May], dir. Mike de Leon (Cinema Artists, 1976); Haplos [Caress], dir. Antonio Jose Perez (Mirick Films International, 1982); and Aswang [Viscera Sucker], dir. Peque Gallaga & Lore Reyes (Regal Films, 1992).

Lim, Jeanne. Tradisyon: Two Screenplays. Tubao Book Series of the Davao Writers Guild. Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts.

Paz, Consuelo J., ed. Ginhawa, Kapalaran, Dalamhati: Essays on Well-being, Opportunity/Destiny, and Anguish. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Patrick D. Flores, “Hanapbuhay sa mga Pelikula ni Nora Aunor [Occupation in the Films of Nora Aunor].”

Reyes, Soledad S. From Darna to Zsazsa Zaturnnah: Desire and Fantasy (Essays on Literature and Popular Culture). Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. Includes studies on komiks-to-film crossovers including the title texts.

Sala, Letty T., and Felipe L. Reyes, eds. Glimpses: Essays, Letters, Memoirs (A Selection from the Writing Class from February to April, 2009). “Book concept” and foreword by Monina Allarey Mercado. Quezon City: Gabriel Books. A chapter by Michelle Gallaga comprises essays on her family, including her parents, producer-scriptwriter Madeleine Gallaga and director Peque Gallaga.

Sayles, John. Amigo [Friend]: Screenplay. Culver City, CA: Anarchist’s Convention Films. Screenplay of Amigo, dir. John Sayles (Anarchist’s Convention Films, 2010); paywalled access available online via John Sayles Blog.

Tadiar, Neferti X.M. Things Fall Away: Philippine Historical Experience and the Makings of Globalization. Post-Contemporary Interventions series. Durham: Duke University Press. Mentions Nora Aunor and the career boost given by her performance in The Flor Contemplacion Story, dir. Joel Lamangan (Viva Films, 1995); discusses Sharon Cuneta’s stature as “arguably the most popular female movie star in the Philippines today”; and erroneously ascribes the “Second Golden Age” concept to an essay by Bienvenido Lumbera.

Tiongson, Nicanor G., ed. Media and Folklore. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 6, no. 1. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines. Patrick F. Campos, “The Fantasy-Adventure Films as Contemporary Epics, 2000-2007”; Alvin Yapan, “Nang Mauso ang Pagpapantasya: Isang Pag-aaral sa Estado ng Kababalaghan sa Telebisyon [When Fantasizing Was in Vogue: A Study on the State of Wonderment on Television].”

Velasco, Johven. Huwaran/Hulmahan Atbp. [Model/Mold Etc.]: The Film Writings of Johven Velasco. Ed. Joel David. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

Villasanta, Boy. Seksinema. San Pedro, Laguna: World Publishing.

Young Critics Circle. Sining ng Sineng Filipino [Art of the Filipino Film]. Aklat Sanyata series. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Sentro ng Wikang Filipino.

2010

Arao, Danilo, ed. Global Makeover: Media and Culture in Asia. Seoul & Quezon City: Asian Media and Culture Forum & Development Center for Asia Africa Pacific. Conference proceedings, including Patrick F. Campos, “The New Fantasy-Adventure Film as Contemporary Epic, 2000-2007”; Joel David, “Orientalism and Classical Film Practice”; and Shirley Palileo-Evidente, “The Alternative Metaphor in Metaphors: Discursive ‘Readings’ on Language, Symbols, and Enculturation in Philippine Cinema and other Media.”

Bailey, Cameron, Frederic Maire, Piers Handling, Sergio Wolf, Wieland Speck, Kim Dong-Ho, Marco Muller, Michel Ouedraogo, and Li Cheuk-to. The Future of Film: 100 New Directors. Take 100 series. London: Phaidon Press Ltd. Each of ten film festival directors – representing Locarno, Toronto, Buenos Aires, Berlin, Pusan, Venice, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), and Hong Kong – selected ten of “the world’s most exceptional emerging film directors” along with a representative recent film from each one (from the Library of Congress’s publisher description); includes Philippine filmmakers Raya Martin with Maicling Pelicula nañg Ysañg Indio Nacional [A Short Film About the Indio Nacional] (Atopic films & The Hubert Bals Fund of the Rotterdam Festival, 2005), Brillante Mendoza with Masahista [The Masseur] (Gee Films International & Centerstage Productions, 2005), Pepe Diokno with Engkwentro [Clash] (Cinemalaya Foundation, 2009), and Auraeus Solito with Ang Pagdadalaga ni Maximo Oliveros [The Blossoming of Maximo Oliveros] (Cinemalaya Foundation & UFO Pictures, 2005).

Bayot, David Jonathan Y., ed. Inter/Sections: Isagani R. Cruz and Friends. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. “A festival of writings by mentors, colleagues, friends, and students – writing in honor of [film & literary critic] Isagani R. Cruz” (David Jonathan Y. Bayot).

Brody, David. Visualizing American Empire: Orientalism and Imperialism in the Philippines. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. “Strange Travelogues: Charles Longfellow in the Orient” is about the son of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow; against his father’s wishes, he toured Asian countries, settled in the Philippines, transformed his appearance, and accumulated souvenirs & photographs (in effect, an archive) of himself and his environment.

Capino, José B. Dream Factories of a Former Colony: American Fantasies, Philippine Cinema. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Carballo, Bibsy M. Filipino Directors Up Close: The Golden Ages of Philippine Cinema, 1950-2010. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing.

Day, Tony, and Maya H.T. Liem, eds. Cultures at War: The Cold War and Cultural Expression in Southeast Asia. Studies on Southeast Asia No. 51. Ithaca, NY: Southeast Asia Program Publications. Francisco Benitez, “Filming Philippine Modernity During the Cold War: The Case of Lamberto [V.] Avellana.”

De la Cruz, Khavn, Dodo Dayao, and Mabie Alagbate. Philippine New Wave: This Is Not a Film Movement. Quezon City: Noel D. Ferrer, MovFest, and Instamatic Writings.

Del Mundo, Clodualdo Jr, ed. Spirituality and the Filipino Film. Film and Faith series. Manila: Communication Foundation for Asia.

Francisco, Butch. Eat Bulaga: Ang Unang Tatlong Dekada [Lunchtime Surprise: The First Three Decades]. Pasig City: TAPE. On the still-running daily noontime TV program that first aired in 1979.

Guardiola, Juan, ed. Cinema Filipinas: Historia, teoría y crítica fílmica (1999-2009) [Philippine Cinema: History, Theory, and Film Criticism (1999-2009)]. [Andalucía]: Juna de Andalucía, Consejería de Cultura Fundación El Legado Andalusí. Retrospective volume, with English translations.

Lacaba, Jose F. Showbiz Lengua: Chika and Chismax about Chuvachuchu [Showbiz Lingo: Small Talk and Gossip about Everything]. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. A “compilation of 68 columns that [the author] wrote for YES! Magazine from 2003 to 2009” (Jose F. Lacaba, Ka Pete blog, November 2010).

Pertierra, Raul. The Anthropology of New Media in the Philippines. Quezon City: Institute of Philippine Culture, Ateneo de Manila University.

Pichay, Nicolas B. A Guide to the Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines: Understanding the Law, Empowering the Artist. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing.

Portus, Lourdes M., ed. Communication and Media Studies in Asia. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 7, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines. Taeyun Yu, “Eastern Gunslingers: Andrew Cunanan and Seung-Hui Cho in Western Media Imaginary.”

Protacio, Romeo M. Romualdo. Balik Tanaw [Recollection]: The Filipino Movie Stars of Yesteryears. [San Diego]: Asian Journal San Diego.

Reyes, Edgardo M. Mga Uod at Rosas [Caterpillars and Roses]. Quezon City: C & E Publishing. Novelization of Mga Uod at Rosas, dir. Romy V. Suzara (Ian Film Productions, 1982).

Tiongson, Nicanor G., ed. The Urian Anthology 1990-1999. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Includes filmography of 1990-99 Philippine film releases.

Torres, Cristina Evangelista. The Americanization of Manila: 1898-1921. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Includes accounts of Dean C. Worcester’s activities.

Yapan, Alvin, and Glenda Oris, eds. Burador [Draft]. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. Classical & contemporary studies on Philippine popular culture.

2011

Cheung, Esther M.K., Gina Marchetti, and Tan See-Kam, eds. Hong Kong Screenscapes: From the New Wave to the Digital Frontier. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. Roger Garcia, John Woo, & Jessica Hagedorn’s “Alternative Perspectives/Alternative Cinemas: Modern Films and the Hong Kong Experimental Scene” comprises “a discussion of a representative program of experimental films by three filmmakers – Jim Shum, Comyn Mo, and [Filipino] Raymond Red, all produced in Hong Kong and Manila in the 1980s under Garcia’s Modern Films Productions company, and shown at the Hollywood/Hong Kong at the Borders: Alternative Perspectives, Alternative Cinema symposium in April 2004” (chapter description in Oxford Index).

Deocampo, Nick. Film: American Influences on Philippine Cinema. Vol. 2 of Reflections on One Hundred Years of Cinema in the Philippines series. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing. Preceded by Cine (2007) and succeeded by Eiga (2016).

Devera, Jojo. Si Elwood, Pelikula, Atbp. [Elwood, Film, Etc.]. Quezon City: Jojo Devera. A study of Elwood Perez as filmmaker.

Kapur, Jyotsna, and Keith B. Wagner, eds. Neoliberalism and Global Cinema: Capital, Culture, and Marxist Critique. New York: Routledge. Bliss Cua Lim, “Gambling on Life and Death: Neoliberal Rationality and the Films of Jeffrey Jeturian.”

Lumbera, Bienvenido. Re-Viewing Filipino Cinema. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing. Includes articles previously published in Revaluation (1984 & 1997).

Orengo, Oscar Fernández. 44 cineastas Filipinos / 44 Filipino Filmmakers / 44 mga Sineastang Pilipino. [Manila]: Instituto Cervantes de Manila.

Philippine LGBT-Related Films, Including: Masahista [Masseur, dir. Brillante Mendoza (Gee Films Productions International & Centerstage Productions, 2005)], Aishite Imasu 1941: Mahal Kita [I Love You, dir. Joel Lamangan (Regal Films, 2004)], Miguel/Michelle [dir. Gil Portes (Forefront Films, 1998)], Macho Dancer [dir. Lino Brocka (Award Films, Special People Productions & Viva Films, 1988)], Ang Lalaki sa Buhay ni Selya [The Man in Selya’s Life, dir. Carlos Siguion-Reyna (Reyna Films & Star Pacific Cinema, 1987)], The Blossoming of Maximo Oliveros [dir. Aureaus Solito (Cinemalaya & UFO Pictures, 2005)], Paper Dolls (film) [dir. Tomer Heymann (Claudius Films, L.M. Media, Heymann Brothers Films, & The Film Sales Co., 2006)], Twilight Dancers [dir. Mel Chionglo (Centerstage Productions, 2006)], Burlesk King [dir. Mel Chionglo (Seiko Films, 1999)], Markova: Comfort Gay [dir. Gil Portes (RVQ Productions, 2000)]. [Toronto: Hephaestus Books.]

San Juan, Edgar, Son-hwa Yi, Aramch’an Yi, and Hye-jong Mok. Kidlat Tahimik. JIFF ch’ongso series. [Jeonju]: Jeonju International Film Festival. On film director Kidlat Tahimik.

Santiago, Arminda Vallejo, ed. Youth and Media. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 8, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines. Jongsuk Ham, “Fluid Identities in the Structure of Cyberspace: A Comparison of Philippine and Korean Experiences”; Pamela Marie Cruz, “Ang Karanasan ng Nakaraan sa Gunitang Viswal: Pagsusuri sa mga Pelikulang Romantiko sa Baguio [The Past Experienced via Visual Recollection: Critique of Romantic Films (set in) Baguio].”

Tolentino, Rolando B., ed. Vaginal Economy. Special issue of Positions: Asia Critique, vol. 19, no. 2. Durham: Duke University Press. On “Cinema and Sexuality in the Post-Marcos, Post-Brocka Philippines” (guest editor’s introduction).

Velarde, Emmie G. Show Biz, Seriously: A Collection of Essays and Feature Articles. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House.

2012

Baluyut, Pearlie Rose S. Institutions and Icons of Patronage: Arts and Culture in the Philippines during the Marcos Years, 1965-1986. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House.

Baumgärtel, Tilman, ed. Southeast Asian Independent Cinema. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. Tilman Baumgärtel, “The Downside of Digital: A German Media Critic Plays Devil’s Advocate.”

Cruz, Denise. Transpacific Femininities: The Making of the Modern Filipina. Durham: Duke University Press. “Transpacific Femininities, Multimedia Archives, and the Global Marketplace” discusses the figure of Imelda Marcos via David Byrne & Fatboy Slim’s musical Here Lies Love: A Song Cycle about Imelda Marcos & Estrella Cumpas (Nonesuch Records & Todomundo, 2010), and describes how the deluxe edition’s DVD makes use of images from “footage of late 1970s and early 1980s club scenes [and] news clips of violence and revolt during the martial law years,” as well as scenes from Iginuhit ng Tadhana [Determined by Destiny]: The Ferdinand E. Marcos Story, dir. Conrado Conde, Jose de Villa, & Mar S. Torres (777 Films & Sampaguita Pictures, 1965).

David, Joel, ed. A Closer Look at Manila by Night. Forum of Kritika Kultura, no. 19. Quezon City: Department of English [of the] Ateneo de Manila University. A study of Manila by Night, dir. Ishmael Bernal (Regal Films, 1980); includes the screenplay by Ishmael Bernal, transcribed by Joel David and translated to English by Alfred A. Yuson.

Ingawanij, May Adadol, and Benjamin McKay, eds. Glimpses of Freedom: Independent Cinema in Southeast Asia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Southeast Asia Program Publications. Tilman Baumgärtel, “The Piracy Generation: Media Piracy and Independent Film in Southeast Asia”; Eloisa May P. Hernandez, “The Beginnings of Digital Cinema in Southeast Asia”; Alexis A. Tioseco, “Like the Body and the Soul: Independence and Aesthetics in Contemporary Philippine Cinema”; John Torres, “Piracy Boom Boom.”

Kim Youna, ed. Women and the Media in Asia: The Precarious Self. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Bliss Cua Lim, “Fandom, Consumption and Collectivity in the Philippine New Cinema: Nora and the Noranians.”

Lanot, Marra PL. Darna & Other Idols. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing. Feature articles on Ryan Agoncillo, Gina Alajar, Lualhati Bautista, Ryan Cayabyab, Lucy & Richard Gomez, Marian Rivera, Rosanna Roces, Vilma Santos & Ralph Recto, Ali Sotto, et al.

Lee, Ricky. Sa Puso ng Himala [In the Heart of Miracle]. Quezon City: Philippine Writers Studio Foundation. Screenplay of Himala, dir. Ishmael Bernal (Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, 1982), production notes, interviews.

Tolentino, Rolando B., ed. Queer Media and Representations. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 9, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines. Joel David, “Thinking Straight: Queer Imaging in Lino Brocka’s Maynila[: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag / Manila: In the Claws of Neon, dir. Lino Brocka, prod. Cinema Artists] (1975)”; J. Neil C. Garcia, “Postcolonial Camp: Hybridity and Performative Inversions in Zsazsa Zaturnnah [Ze Moveeh, dir. Joel Lamangan, prod. Regal Films, Regal Multimedia, & Ignite Entertainment (2006)].”

2013

Almajose, Kathy, and JV Ramos. Kakaibang Tingin, Kakaibang Titig [Different Look, Different Gaze]: An Appreciation of the Golden Period in Philippine Cinema. [Batangas City]: La Abuela Publishing House.

Castillo, Celso Ad. Celso Ad. Castillo: An Autobiography & His Craft. [Manila]: CELCAS Film Entertainment.

Enriquez, Elizabeth L., ed. Media and Gender Identity. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 10, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines. Rommel B. Rodriguez, “Representasyon ng Pagkalalaki sa Pelikulang Bakbakan ni FPJ [Representation of Masculinity in the Action Film of Fernando Poe Jr.].”

Fabie, Celine Beatrice. Mona Lisa: A Portrait from the Memoirs of a Grandmother. Parañaque City: Mona Lisa Publication. On the globally renowned film performer.

Fernandez, Manuel B., and Ronald K. Constantino. A Tribute to the Movie Queen Carmen Rosales: Ang Tangi Kong Pag-ibig [My Only Love]. Makati City: DLD Publishing.

Gamboa, Jose T. Brocka: The Filmmaker without Fear. Modern Heroes for the Filipino Youth series. Makati City: Bookmark. On Filipino director Lino Brocka.

Hau, Caroline S., Isabelita O. Reyes, and Katrina Tuvera, eds. Querida [Paramour]: An Anthology. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing. Ricky [as Ricardo] Lee, Raquel Villavicencio, & Ishmael Bernal, Relasyon [Affair], screenplay of the film, dir. Ishmael Bernal (Regal Films, 1982).

Nepales, Ruben. My Filipino Connection: The Philippines in Hollywood. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing. Includes articles on Bernardo Bernardo, Vanessa Hudgens, Jake Zyrus [as Charice Pempengco], Darren Criss, Bessie Badilla, Matthew Libatique, Ramona Diaz, Mikey Bustos, et al.

Tiongson, Nicanor G., ed. Media and History. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 10, no. 1. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines. José S. Buenconsejo, “Orientalism in the Narrative, Music and Myth of the Amok in the 1937 Film Zamboanga [dir. Eduardo de Castro, prod. Filippine Productions]”; Ma. Rina Locsin, “A Brief History of the Baguio Sine.”

———, ed. The Urian Anthology 2000-2009: The Rise of the Philippine New Wave Indie Film. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Includes filmography of 2000-10 Philippine film releases.

Yoneno-Reyes, Michiyo, ed. East Asian Popular Culture: Philippine Perspectives. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Asian Center.

2014

Barker, Joshua, Erik Harris, and Johan Lindquist, eds. Figures of Southeast Asian Modernity. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. José B. Capino, “Domestic Helper.”

Barrow, Sarah, Sabine Haenni, and John White, eds. The Routledge Encyclopedia of Films. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. José B. Capino, “Manila: In the Claws of Neon / Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag[, dir. Lino Brocka (Cinema Artists, 1975)].”

Cañete, Reuben Ramas. Masculinity, Media, and Their Publics in the Philippines: Selected Essays. Media and Communication series. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. “Subjects of [the] essays in the book include post-EDSA homoerotic cinema, outright pornography, Bench billboard ads, Manny Pacquiao, and the [University of the Philippines’s symbolic] Oblation” (UP Press Facebook announcement).

David, Joel, ed. [Overseas Filipino Workers] in Foreign Cinema. Monograph of Kritika Kultura, nos. 21 & 22. Quezon City: Department of English [of the] Ateneo de Manila University.

———. Fields of Vision: Critical Applications in Recent Philippine Cinema. Digital edition. Quezon City: Amauteurish Publishing. Revision & update of the 1995 book edition, available at the Ámauteurish! website.

———. The National Pastime: Contemporary Philippine Cinema. Digital edition. Quezon City: Amauteurish Publishing. Revision & update of the 1990 book edition, available at the Ámauteurish! website.

———. Wages of Cinema: Film in Philippine Perspective. Digital edition. Quezon City: Amauteurish Publishing. Revision & update of the 1998 book edition, available at the Ámauteurish! website.

David, Joel, and Violeda A. Umali, eds. Media and the Diaspora. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 11, no. 1. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines. Louie Jon A. Sanchez, “Koreanovelas, Teleseryes, and the ‘Diasporization’ of the Filipino/the Philippines”; Joel David, “Phantom Limbs in the Body Politic: Filipinos in Foreign Cinema”; Andrew Leavold, “Bamboo Gods and Bionic Boys: A Brief History of the Philippines’ B Films.”

De la Paz, Cecilia S., and Patrick D. Flores. Sining at Lipunan [Art and Society]. Aklat Sanyata series. Quezon City: Sentro ng Wikang Filipino – Diliman. 2nd edition of Patrick D. Flores & Cecilia S. de la Paz’s Sining at Lipunan (1997).

Del Mundo, Clodualdo Jr., ed. Making Waves: 10 Years of Cinemalaya [Philippine Independent Film Festival]. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing.

Garcia, J. Neil C. The Postcolonial Perverse: Critiques of Contemporary Philippine Culture, Volume 1. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Table of Contents contains the heading “Volume One: The Postcolonial”; includes “Philippine Cinema: The State of the Art.”

Gutierrez-Ang, Jaime. Tanglaw Introduction to Film: An Outcomes-Based Text Manual in Film Aesthetics, Appreciation, Theory and Criticism for the Filipino Student. Manila: Mindshapers.

Hau, Caroline S. The Chinese Question: Ethnicity, Nation, and Region in and Beyond the Philippines. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2014. Includes discussions of the works of scriptwriter Ricardo Lee and producer Lily Monteverde (particularly Regal Films’ Mano Po [Your Blessing, Please] series), as well as of Armando Garces’s Dragnet (1973, scripted by Lee), Eddie Romero’s Ganito Kami Noon … Paano Kayo Ngayon? [As We Were] (1976), and Mark Meily’s Crying Ladies (2003).

Hernandez, Eloisa May P. Digital Cinema in the Philippines, 1999-2009. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

Rice, Mark. Dean Worcester’s Fantasy Islands: Photography, Film, and the Colonial Philippines. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Tolentino, Rolando B. Contestable Nation-Space: Cinema, Cultural Politics, and Transnationalism in the Marcos-Brocka Philippines. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. On the anti-dictatorship activism of film director Lino Brocka during the regime of Ferdinand E. Marcos.

Tolentino, Rolando B., and Josefina M.C. Santos, eds. Media at Lipunan [Media and Society]. Media and Communication Textbook Series. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Nicanor G. Tiongson, “The Politics of Film Censorship.”

Tolentino, Rolando B., and Patrick F. Campos, Randy Jay C. Solis, and Choy S. Pangilinan, eds. Communication and Media Theories. Media and Communication Textbook Series. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Isagani R. Cruz, “Si Lam-ang, si Fernando Poe Jr., at si Aquino: Ilang Kuro-Kuro tungkol sa Epikong Filipino [(Mythological figure) Lam-ang, (film auteur) Fernando Poe Jr., and (Benigno S.) Aquino (Jr.): A Few Ideas on the Philippine Epic]”; Rolando B. Tolentino, “Masses, Power, and Gangsterism in the Films of Joseph ‘Erap’ Estrada”; Soledad Reyes, “Ang Mambabasa/Manonood, ang ‘Mass Media,’ at ang Paglikha ng Kahulugan [The Reader/Viewer, the ‘Mass Media,’ and the Production of Meaning]”; Patrick D. Flores, “Bodies of Work: Sexual Circulation in Philippine Cinema”; Eulalio R. Guieb III, “Worlding the Third World (O Kung Paanong Nagkadaigdig ang Ikatlong Daigdig sa mga Pelikula ni Kidlat Tahimik) [Or How the Third World Became Worlded in the Films of Kidlat Tahimik].”

2015

Bandhauer, Andrea, and Michelle Royer, eds. Stars in World Cinema: Screen Icons and Star Systems Across Cultures. London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Bliss Cua Lim, “Sharon’s Noranian Turn: Stardom, Race, and Language in Philippine Cinema” discusses Sharon Cuneta’s successful replication of Nora Aunor’s early rags-to-riches-via-singing film persona.

Baumgärtel, Tilman, ed. A Reader on International Media Piracy: Pirate Essays. MediaMatters series. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Tilman Baumgärtel, “The Triumph of the Pirates: Books, Letters, Movies, and Vegan Candy – Not a Conclusion.”

David, Joel, ed. On Nora Aunor and the Philippine Star System. Forum of Kritika Kultura, no. 25. Quezon City: Department of English [of the] Ateneo de Manila University.

Ferrer, Noel D. Mag-Artista Ka! Mga Dapat Mong Malaman Para Sumikat sa Showbiz sa Tamang Paraan, sa Tamang Panahon [Be a Star! What You Should Learn to Get Famous in Showbiz in the Right Way, at the Right Time]. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing. Filipino version of Sisikat Din Ako!

———. Sisikat Din Ako! [I’ll Also Get Famous!] Your Guide to Making Your Mark in Show Business. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing. English version of Mag-Artista Ka!

Jimenez, Ruby Rosa A., ed. Heneral Luna: The History Behind The Movie. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing. Regarding Heneral Luna, dir. Jerrold Tarog (Artikulo Uno Productions, 2015), based on “an interview with Dr. Vivencio R. Jose, author of The Rise and Fall of Antonio Luna” (cover text).

Kwon Dong Hwan. Westernized Visual Representation of Jesus and the Construction of Religious Meanings: A Reception Analysis of The Jesus Film (1979) among the Mangyan Tribes. Asbury Theological Seminary Series in Christian Revitalization Studies. Lexington, KY: Emeth Press. Study of The Jesus Film, dirs. John Krish & Peter Sykes (Inspirational Films & The Genesis Project, 1979).

Lacuesta, Angelo Rodriguez, ed. Contra Mundum [Against the World]: On the Film Restoration of Nick Joaquin’s A Portrait of the Artist as Filipino. [Quezon City]: Miguel P. de Leon Publishing. Regarding A Portrait of the Artist as Filipino, dir. Lamberto V. Avellana (Diadem Productions & Cinema Artists Philippines, 1965). See Girlie Rodis (ed.), Ang Larawan [The Portrait]: From Stage to Screen (2017), for the text of the play.

Miller, Toby, ed. The Routledge Companion to Global Popular Culture. New York: Routledge. Talitha Espiritu, “Performing Native Identities: Human Displays and Indigenous Activism in Marcos’s Philippines.”

Rodriguez, Simon Godfrey, Nina Macaraig-Gamboa, and Wylzter Gutierrez. Legacy. Modern Heroes for the Filipino Youth series. Makati City: Bookmark & Studio Graphics Corp. On film & theater director Lamberto V. Avellana.

Sevilla, Juan Miguel. One More Chance. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing. Novelization of One More Chance, dir. Cathy Garcia-Molina (ABS-CBN Film Productions & Star Cinema, 2007).

Siguion-Reyna, Armida, and Nelson A. Navarro. Armida. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing. Comprising “The Unfinished Memoirs” by Armida Siguion-Reyna; and “Armida Siguion-Reyna: The Singer and the Song” by Nelson A. Navarro.

Tolentino, Rolando B., and Gary C. Devilles, eds. Kritikal na Espasyo ng Kulturang Popular [Critical Spaces of Popular Culture]. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.

2016

Africa, Antonio P. Expressions of Tagalog Imaginary: The Tagalog Sarswela and Kundiman in Early Films in the Philippines (1939-1959). UNITAS: Semi-Annual Peer-Reviewed International Online Journal of Advanced Research in Literature, Culture, and Society, vol. 89, no. 2. Manila: University of Santo Tomas.

Aitken, Ian, and Camille Deprez, eds. The Colonial Documentary Film in South and South-East Asia. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. José B. Capino, “Figures of Empire: American Documentaries in the Philippines.”

Balce, Nerissa. Body Parts of Empire: Visual Abjection, Filipino Images, and the American Archive. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Campos, Patrick F. The End of National Cinema: Filipino Film at the Turn of the Century. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

———, ed. Intellectuals, the Public Arena, and the Nation. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 13, no. 1. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines. Joyce Arriola, “Visual Artists as Literary Artists: Fantasy and Folklore in 1950s Komiks-to-Film Adaptations.”

David, Adam, Carljoe Javier, Noel Pascual, and Mervin Malonzo. Shake Rattle & Roll: Kahindik-hindik na Klasikong Katatakutan [Terrifying Horror Classics]. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing. Based on Shake, Rattle & Roll II, dir. Peque Gallaga & Lore Reyes (Regal Films, 1990).

David, Joel. Book Texts: A Pinoy Film Course. Original digital edition. Quezon City: Amauteurish Publishing. A collection drawn from previous book publications, available exclusively at the Ámauteurish! website.

Deocampo, Nick. Eiga: Cinema in the Philippines during World War II. Vol. 3 of Reflections on One Hundred Years of Cinema in the Philippines series. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing. Preceded by Cine (2007) and Film (2011).

Deramas, Wenn V. Direk 2 da Poynt [Direct(or) to the Point]. Pasig City: VRJ Books. Written and published autobiography, posthumously launched.

Elly, Queen. Vince & Kath series. 7 volumes, with vols. 6 & 7 titled Vince & Kath & James. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing. Origin of and takeoff from Vince & Kath & James, dir. Theodore Boborol (Star Cinema, 2016). Originally a “textserye” (“social serye” on the book covers) appearing on Facebook, comprising exchanges among the characters, with the later books bearing individual titles: Book 2, Remember; Book 3, Promise; Book 4, Walang Titibag [None Can Destroy]; Book 5, Cheer and Var (Kath & Vince’s respective terms of endearment); Book 6, The Reunion; and Book 7, The Finale. (Per Roumella Nina L. Monge, in an email exchange, “books 5 & 6 were developed alongside the creation of the film.”)

Grant, Paul Douglas, and Misha Boris Anissimov. Lilas [Film]: An Illustrated History of the Golden Ages of Cebuano Cinema. Cebu City: University of San Carlos Press.

Lo, Ricardo F. Conversations Pa More. Pasig City: VRJ Books. Sequel of Conversations with Ricky Lo (2001).

Loriga, Renato. Autohystoria: Visioni postcoloniali del nuovo cinema filippino [Postcolonial Visions of the New Filipino Cinema]. Studi postcoloniali di cinema e media series no. 4. Canterano, RM: Aracne editrice. A study of Autohystoria, dir. Raya Martin (Cinematografica, 2007).

Manalansan, Martin F., and Augusto F. Espiritu, eds. Filipino Studies: Palimpsests of Nation and Diaspora. New York: New York University Press. Robert Diaz’s “Redressive Nationalisms, Queer Victimhood, and Japanese Duress” discusses the claims of Walter Dempster Jr. a.k.a. [Walterina] Markova: Comfort Gay [male enslaved for sex work by the Japanese Imperial Army during World War II], dir. Gil Portes (RVQ Productions, 2000).

Manzanilla, JPaul S., and Caroline S. Hau, eds. Remembering/Rethinking EDSA. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing. Joel David, “Grains & Flickers”; Patrick D. Flores, “A Cinema in Transition: Initial Incursions.”

Pascual, Chuckberry J. Pagpasok sa Eksena: Ang Sinehan sa Panitikan at Pag-aaral ng Piling Sinehan sa Recto [Scene Entrance: The Movie House in Literature and the Study of Selected Theaters along Recto (Avenue)]. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

Tolentino, Rolando B. Indie Cinema at mga Sanaysay sa Topograpiya ng Pelikula ng Filipinas [Indie Cinema and Essays on the Topography of Philippine Cinema]. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House.

———. Keywords: Essays on Philippine Media Cultures and Neocolonialisms. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.

Travers, Steven. Coppola’s Monster Film: The Making of Apocalypse Now. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. Regarding Apocalypse Now, dir. Francis Ford Coppola (American Zoetrope, 1979).

2017

Bernal, Ishmael, Jorge Arago, and Angela Stuart Santiago. Pro Bernal Anti Bio. Manila: ABS-CBN Publishing. Biography of Ishmael Bernal, authorizing Jorge Arago, completed by Angela Stuart Santiago.

Cabahug, Eric. Deadma Walking [Superciliously Walking]. Pasig City: VRJ Books. Novelization of Deadma Walking, dir. Julius Alfonso (T-Rex Entertainment Productions, 2017); “dedma,” a contraction of “dead malice” (a transliteration of “patay malisya”), refers to feigning ignorance.

Chua, Jonathan, Rosario Cruz-Lucero, and Rolando B. Tolentino, eds. A Reader in Philippine Film: History and Criticism (Essays in Honor of [film & culture critic] Nicanor G. Tiongson). Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

David, Joel. Manila by Night: A Queer Film Classic. Queer Film Classics series, eds. Thomas Waugh & Matthew Hays. Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press. A study of Manila by Night, dir. Ishmael Bernal (Regal Films, 1980).

Deocampo, Nick, ed. Early Cinema in Asia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Dizon, Christianne, ed. Team Real: Your All-Access Pass into James Reid & Nadine Lustre’s World. Pasig City: VRJ Books.

Espiritu, Talitha. Passionate Revolutions: The Media and the Rise and Fall of the Marcos Regime. Ohio University Research in International Studies Southeast Asia Series No. 132. Athens: Ohio University Press. “National Discipline and the Cinema”; “The New Politics, Lino Brocka, and People Power”; “The Force of National Allegory.”

Fantauzzo, Laurel. The First Impulse. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing. On the unsolved September 2009 murder case of film critics Alexis Tioseco and his Slovenian partner Nika Bohinc.

Gomez, Jerome. Batch ’81: The Making of a Mike de Leon Film. Singapore: Asian Film Archive. Regarding Batch ’81, dir. Mike de Leon (MVP Pictures, 1982).

Ha Ju-yong, ed. Hallyu in and for Asia. Forum of Kritika Kultura, no. 28. Quezon City: Department of English [of the] Ateneo de Manila University. Joel David, “Remembering the Forgotten War: Origins of the Korean War Film and Its Development during Hallyu”; Maria Luisa Torres Reyes, “Multicultural Bildungsroman: Coming of Age between Han and Sana.”

Lacap, Iris. Crazy Beautiful You: The Novel. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing. Novelization of Crazy Beautiful You, dir. Mae Czarina Cruz [as Mae Cruz-Alviar] (ABS-CBN Film Productions & Star Cinema, 2015).

Laxamana, Jason Paul. 100 Tula Para Kay Stella [100 Poems for Stella]. Pasig City: VRJ Books. Novelization of 100 Tula Para Kay Stella, dir. Jason Paul Laxamana (Viva Films, 2017).

Leavold, Andrew. The Search for Weng Weng. Melbourne: LedaTape Organisation. On the filming of The Search for Weng Weng documentary, dir. Andrew Leavold (Death Rides a Red Horse & Turkeyshoot Productions, 2013).

Mendoza, Maine. Yup, I Am that Girl. Pasig City: Summit Publishing Co. On the comedian, host, and viral internet personality.

Mijares, Primitivo. The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos: Revised and Annotated. Quezon City: Bughaw. Original published in 1976.

National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Bilang Filipinas: A Primer on Philippine Cultural Statistics. Manila: NCCA.

Pichay, Nicolas B. Maxie: Book & Lyrics by Nicolas B. Pichay, Adapted from the Screenplay of Michiko Yamamoto. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House. Based on Ang Pagdadalaga ni Maximo Oliveros [The Blossoming of Maximo Oliveros], dir. Aureaus Solito (Cinemalaya & UFO Pictures, 2005).

Ramsey, Sansu. Elizabeth Ramsey: Queen of Philippine Rock n’ Roll. Scotts Valley, CA: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. Authorized biography of the late multimedia entertainer, of Jamaican and Spanish descent, by her daughter.

Rodis, Girlie, ed. Ang Larawan [The Portrait]: From Stage to Screen. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing. Includes (among others) the screenplay by Alemberg Ang, Loy Arcenas, Ryan Cayabyab, Waya Gallardo, Celeste Legaspi, Dennis Marasigan, Girlie Rodis, & Rolando Tinio of Ang Larawan, dir. Loy Arcenas (Culturtain Musicat Productions, 2017).

Tiongson, Nicanor G., ed. Broadcast Arts. Vol. 10 (of 12 vols.) of Cultural Center of the Philippines Encyclopedia of Philippine Art. 2nd edition. Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines & the Office of the Chancellor, University of the Philippines Diliman. No equivalent volume in the 1st edition of the CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Art.

———, ed. Film. Vol. 6 (of 12 vols.) of Cultural Center of the Philippines Encyclopedia of Philippine Art. 2nd edition. Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines & the Office of the Chancellor, University of the Philippines Diliman. Equivalent volume of Philippine Film, vol. 8 in the 1st edition of the CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Art.

2018

Baltazar, Dwein. Exes Baggage. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing. Screenplay of Exes Baggage, dir. Dan Villegas (Black Sheep, 2018).

Bautista, Mark. Beyond the Mark. Pasig City: VRJ Books. Singer, actor, & model’s coming-out narrative.

Bernardo, Sigrid Andrea. Kita Kita [I See You]: The Novel. Pasig City: VRJ Books. Novelization of Kita Kita, dir. Sigrid Andrea Bernardo (Spring Films, 2017).

Bonifacio, Bobby Jr., and Juvy G. Galamiton. Hospicio [Hospice]: The Original Screenplay. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing. Screenplay of Hospicio, dir. Bobby Bonifacio Jr. (Cinema One & Project 8 Corner San Joaquin Projects, 2018).

Cabagnot, Edward delos Santos. Martin Heidegger’s Being and Time and Manuel Silos’s Biyaya ng Lupa [Blessings of the Land]. Media and Communication series. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. A study of the 1927 Seit und Zeit text (in English translation) vis-à-vis Biyaya ng Lupa, dir. Manuel Silos (LVN Pictures, 1959).

Cais, Ethelinda. Mr. and Mrs. Cruz: The Novel. Pasig City: VRJ Books. Novelization of Mr. and Mrs. Cruz, dir. Sigrid Andrea Bernardo (IdeaFirst Co. & Viva Films, 2018).

Deyto, Epoy. Krisis at Pelikula: Mga Paunang Tala tungkol sa mga Imahe at Eksena sa Panahon ng Digma [Crisis and Film: Preliminary Notes about Images and Scenes during a Time of War]. Pasig City: TollidBilly & Shonenbat Collective. Available at the author’s Missing Codec blog.

Flores, Pao. She’s the One: The Novel. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing. Novelization of She’s the One, dir. Mae Czarina Cruz (ABS-CBN Film Productions & Star Cinema, 2013).

Goyo: Ang Batang Heneral [The Young General]: The History Behind the Movie. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing. Regarding Goyo: Ang Batang Heneral, dir. Jerrold Tarog (TBA Studios, Artikulo Uno Productions, & Globe Studios, 2018); containing “an interview with Isagani Giron” (cover description).

Gracio, Jerry B. Bagay Tayo [We’re Compatible]. Pasay City: Visprint. On the scriptwriter’s professional experience and intense personal relationship with Raymond Reña, nicknamed “Pitbull”; accompanied by a simultaneously published book of poetry titled Hindi Bagay [Incompatible].

Icabandi, Arlo. Double Twisting Double Back: The Novel. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing. Novelization of Double Twisting Double Back, dir. Joseph Abello (Cinema One Originals, #TeamMSB, & Black Maria Pictures, 2018).

Kim Young-woo, ed. Centennial Anniversary of the Philippine Cinema: Cinema, as a Response to the Nation. Busan: Busan International Film Festival. Retrospective volume, with Korean translations.

Lapus, John. Pang MMK [For (the television program) Maalaala Mo Kaya / Would You Remember]: The Original Screenplay. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing. Screenplay of Pang MMK, dir. John Lapus (Cinema One Originals, 2018).

Lasar, Charmaine. The Hows of Us: The Novel. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing. Novelization of The Hows of Us, dir. Cathy Garcia-Molina (ABS-CBN Film Productions & Star Cinema, 2018).

Ner, Sonia P., Louise Arianne C. Ferriols, and Angelo J. Aguinaldo. Filming in the Philippines. [Pasig City]: Film Development Council of the Philippines.

Olgado, Benedict Salazar, ed. Cinema and the Archives in the Philippines. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 15, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines. Bliss Cua Lim, “Fragility, Perseverance, and Survival in State-Run Philippine Archives”; Bernadette Rose Alba Patino, “From Colonial Policy to National Treasure: Tracing the Making of Audiovisual Heritage in the Philippines”; Rosemarie O. Roque, “Artsibo at Sineng Bayan: Pagpapanatili ng Kolektibong Alaala at Patuloy na Kolektibong Pagsalungat sa Kasinungalingan at Panunupil [Archive and National Cinema: Preserving Collective Memory and the Continuing Collective Resistance against Lies and Repression]”; Nick Deocampo, “Envisioning a Rhizomic Audio-Visual Archiving for the Future.”

Sycip, Rinka. Miss Granny. Pasig City: VRJ Books. Screenplay of Miss Granny, dir. Joyce Bernal (Viva Films & N2 Productions, 2018), remake of Soo-sang-han geun-yeo, dir. Dong-hyuk Hwang (Yeinplus Entertainment & CJ Entertainment, 2014); also “with lots of scenes not found in the movie, and several photos from the movie itself” (Viva Books website).

Villamor, Irene Emma. Meet Me in St. Gallen. Pasig City: VRJ Books. Screenplay of Meet Me in St. Gallen, dir. Irene Emma Villamor (Spring Films & Viva Films, 2018).

———. Sid & Aya (Not A Love Story). Pasig City: VRJ Books. Screenplay of Sid & Aya (Not A Love Story), dir. Irene Emma Villamor (Viva Films & N2 Productions, 2018).

Zyrus, Jake. I Am Jake. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing. Transition account of the former Charice Pempengco.

2019

Arriola, Joyce L. Pelikulang Komiks [Comics Films]: Toward a Theory of Filipino Film Adaptation. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

Bolisay, Richard. Break It to Me Gently: Essays on Filipino Film. Makati City: Everything’s Fine. Compiled primarily from author’s blog, Lilok Pelikula.

Chuaunsu, Jen, and Katherine Labayen. Isa Pa, With Feelings [Once More, with Feelings]: The Original Screenplay. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing. Screenplay of Isa Pa, With Feelings, dir. Prime Cruz (Black Sheep & APT Entertainment, 2019). Includes “interviews with cast and crew, and exclusive content inside” (cover description).

Cielo, Carlo. White AF. [Pasig City]: Shonenbat Collective. A “loose account of the current ‘whiteness’ in Pinoy politics and culture” (product self-description); available at Shonenbat Collective on Facebook.

Coenen, Michael. The Apocalypse of Marlon Brando: Death and Retribution in the Philippine Jungle. St. Paul, MN: Ex Nihilo Media. Fiction “inspired by real events” (back cover), specifically the making of Francis [Ford] Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979).

David, Joel. Millennial Traversals: Outliers, Juvenilia, & Quondam Popcult Blabbery. Book edition. Quezon City: Amauteurish Publishing. Also available online as editions of UNITAS: Semi-Annual Peer-Reviewed International Online Journal of Advanced Research in Literature, Culture, and Society: Part 1 (Traversals within Cinema) in vol. 88, no. 1 (May 2015) and Part 2 (Expanded Perspectives) in vol. 89, no. 1 (May 2016). More information at the Ámauteurish! website.

Del Mundo, Clodualdo Jr., and Shirley Lua, eds. Direk [Director]: Essays on Filipino Filmmakers. Critical Voices series. Eastbourne, East Sussex: Sussex Academic Press.

Dhar, Nirmal. Bhin Desher Cinema [Cinema from Foreign Countries]. Howrah, India: Sahajpaath Publishers. In Bengali, for the Cinema Federation’s International Film Festival; 101 movies from countries outside India, including Posas [Shackled], dir. Lawrence Fajardo (Quantum Films & Cinemalaya Foundation, 2012).

Gacoscos, Blaise C. Just a Stranger. Pasig City: VRJ Books. Novelization of Just a Stranger, dir. Jason Paul Laxamana (Viva Films, 2019).

Guillermo, Alice. Frisson: The Collected Criticism of Alice Guillermo. Ed. Patrick D. Flores & Roberto G. Paulino. Quezon City: Philippine Contemporary Art Network. “The Walking Tall Syndrome”; “National Identity and the Artist”; “The Many Faces of Censorship”; “Rejecting the Anti-Women in Art and Media”; “Book-Burning in the 20th Century,” on the censorship of the Isip Pinoy [Pinoy Mentality] TV program. Available at the Philippine Contemporary Art Network website.

Hanna, Monica, and Rebecca A. Sheehan, eds. Border Cinema: Reimagining Identity through Aesthetics. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. José B. Capino, “Filipinos at the Border: Migrant Workers in Transnational Philippine Cinema.”

Jadaone, Antoinette. Alone/Together. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing. Screenplay of Alone/Together, dir. Antoinette Jadaone (Black Sheep & Project 8 Corner San Joaquin Projects, 2019).

Keppy, Peter. Tales of Southeast Asia’s Jazz Age: Filipinos, Indonesians and Popular Culture, 1920-1936. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press.

Lacap, Iris. Barcelona: A Love Untold. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing. Novelization of Barcelona: A Love Untold, dir. Olivia M. Lamasan (ABS-CBN Film Productions & Star Cinema, 2016).

Lasar, Charmaine. Hello, Love, Goodbye: The Novel. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing. Novelization of Hello, Love, Goodbye, dir. Cathy Garcia-Molina (Star Cinema, 2019).

Lim, Michael Kho. Philippine Cinema and the Cultural Economy of Distribution. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.

Malanum, Ash M. Unforgettable. Pasig City: VRJ Books. Novelization of Unforgettable, dirs. Perci Intalan & Jun Robles Lana (Viva Films & Ideafirst Co., 2019).

Mique, Benedict. MOMOL Nights: The Original Screenplay. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing. Screenplay of MOMOL Nights, dir. Benedict Mique (Dreamscape Digital & Lonewolf Films, 2019); MOMOL is the anagram for “make-out make-out lang” or engaging in “merely” non-penetrative sexual activity.

Promkhuntong, Wikanda, and Bertha Chin, eds. Fandom and Cinephilia in Southeast Asia. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 16, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines. Richard Bolisay, “‘Yes, You Belong to Me!’ Reflections on the JaDine [James Reid & Nadine Lustre] Love Team Fandom in the Age of Twitter and in the Context of Filipino Fan Culture”; Leticia Tojos, “Empowering Marginalized Filipinos Through Participatory Video Production.”

Vera, Rody. Two Women as Specters of History: Lakambini [Noblewoman] and Indigo Child. Ed. Ellen Ongkeko-Marfil. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. Screenplays of Lakambini, dir. Ellen Ongkeko-Marfil & Jeffrey Jeturian (unfinished); and Indigo Child, dir. Ellen Ongkeko-Marfil (Erasto Films, 2017).

Viva Films. Miracle in Cell No. 7. Pasig City: VRJ Books. Regarding the production of Miracle in Cell No. 7, dir. Nuel C. Naval (Viva Films, 2019), remake of 7-beon-bang-ui seon-mul, dir. Hwan-kyung Lee (Fineworks & CL Entertainment, 2013).

Yap, Darryl. Jowable [Lover Material]. Pasig City: VRJ Books. Novelization of #Jowable, dir. Darryl Yap (Viva Films & VinCentiments, 2019). Based on videos first posted on Facebook; “jowa” is a contraction of “jowawa,” originally gay lingo for asawa or spouse, with the first sound replaced by “j-” (sometimes “sh-”) as a pseudo-French affectation from the 1970s.

2020
[as of May 2020]

Bolisay, Richard, ed. Daang Dokyu: A Festival of Philippine Documentaries. Philippines [city unkn.]: FilDocs. A “DokBook” for the eponymous film festival; available as an Issuu digital file at the Daang Dokyu website.

Capino, José B. Martial Law Melodrama: Lino Brocka’s Cinema Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.

David, Joel, and Joyce Arriola, eds. Film Criticism in the Philippines. Special issue of UNITAS: Semi-Annual Peer-Reviewed International Online Journal of Advanced Research in Literature, Culture, and Society, vol. 93, no. 1. Manila: University of Santo Tomas.

Deyto, Epoy. The Years of Permanent Midnight and Other Unedited Essays. 2018 (1st edition). Pasig City: TollidBilly & Shonenbat Collective. Available at the author’s Missing Codec blog; new issue includes an additional essay.

Gimenez-Maceda, Teresita, Amado Anthony G. Mendoza III, and Galileo S. Zafra, eds. Bien! Bien! Alagad ng Sining, Anak ng Bayan [Art’s Adherent, the Nation’s Offspring]. Festschrift for Bienvenido L. Lumbera. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Sentro ng Wikang Filipino. Roland B. Tolentino, “Desire, Neoliberalism, Hollywood, and Asian Cinemas”; Romulo P. Baquiran Jr, “Pagtagos ng Mitiko at Modernidad sa mga Piling Metasineng Tula/Sugidanon [Infusion of Myth and Modernity in Selected Metafilmic Poetry / Panay Epics].”

Jacobo, Jaya, ed. Nora [Aunor]. Special issue of Bikol Studies: Perspectives & Advocacies, issue no. 1. Naga City: Ateneo de Naga University.

Kung, Kaby Wing-Sze, ed. Reconceptualizing the Digital Humanities in Asia: New Representations of Art, History and Culture. Digital Culture and Humanities series no. 2 (Challenges and Developments in a Globalized Asia). Singapore: Springer Nature. Jose Gutierrez III, “Cinematic Contemplation Online: The Art and Philosophy of Life-world Series (2017).”

Labiste, Ma. Diosa, ed. Duterte and Disinformation. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 17, no. 1. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines. Adjani Guerrero Arumpac, “Regenerative Documentary: Posthuman Art in the Context of the Philippine Drug War”; Carlo Gabriel “Choy” Pangilinan, “Mula kay GMA Hanggang kay Duterte: Kritika sa Ilang Dokumentaryong Politikal at Pagmamapa sa Tunguhin ng Dokumentaryo sa Panahong Pinapaslang ang Politikal [From (Philippine Presidents Gloria Macapagal Arroyo) to (Rodrigo Roa) Duterte: A Critique of Selected Political Documentaries and a Mapping of Documentary Trends during the Slaughter of Political (Participants)].”

Lico, Gerard. PA(ng)LABAS: Architecture + Cinema – Projection of Filipino Space in Film. 2nd ed. Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts. “A new essay tracing the development and decline of Filipino cinema houses, referred to in this book as Popcorn Palaces, is the main highlight of this book and features rare archival images” (author’s Facebook announcement).

Lim, Noel F., Joey Agbayani, and David Hontiveros. Hotel Purgatorio. Los Angeles: Dizzy Emu Publishing. Unproduced filmscript.

Peterson, Andrea L., Gaspar A. Vibal, Christopher A. Datol, and Nicanor A. Lajom. Fifty Shades of Philippine Art: Philippine Cinematic Art. 50 Shades of Philippine Art series. Quezon City: Vibal.

Renske, David. Cirio H. Santiago: Unbekannter Meister des B-Films [Unknown Master of B-Films]. Birkenfeld, Germany: Creepy*Images. “Unlike our other publications this book is very text-heavy and therefore in German language only! But we are already discussing the release of an English version as well” (Creepy*Images website announcement).

Sollano, Francis, and Jose Mari B. Cuartero, eds. Interdisciplinarity in the Philippine Academia: Theory, History, and Challenges. Forum of Kritika Kultura, nos. 33 & 34. Quezon City: Department of English [of the] Ateneo de Manila University, 2020. Louie Jon A. Sánchez, “Ilang Eksplorasyon sa Pag-Aaral ng Kulturang Popular sa Filipinas [Some Explorations in the Study of Popular Culture in the Philippines].”

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Comprehensive Pinas Film Biblio: Alphabetized by Title

Important: To see these entries alphabetized by author, click here; to see them grouped by category, click here; the entries in reverse-chronological order can be found here. To return to the landing page, click here. Any notes that follow each entry’s year of publication are annotations made by the author, which fall under copyright. Out-of-print books and chapters that I wrote or edited may be found in this blog’s Books section. For list of titles beyond the initial (Numerals & A) group: B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y.

Numerals & A

100 Tula Para Kay Stella [100 Poems for Stella]. By Jason Paul Laxamana. Pasig City: VRJ Books, 2017. Novelization of 100 Tula Para Kay Stella, dir. Jason Paul Laxamana (Viva Films, 2017).

100 Women of the Philippines: Celebrating Filipino Womanhood in the New Millennium. By Joy Buensalido and Abe Florendo. Makati City: Buensalido & Associates, 1999. Including Ophelia Alcantara-Dimalanta, Zeneida Amador, Nora Aunor, Marilou Diaz-Abaya, Laurice Guillen, Lea Salonga, Vilma Santos, Sharon Cuneta, Regine Velasquez, Monique Wilson, et al.

101 Filipino Icons. Ed. Virgilio S. Almario. Quezon City: Adarna House, 2007.

44 cineastas Filipinos / 44 Filipino Filmmakers / 44 mga Sineastang Pilipino. By Oscar Fernández Orengo. [Manila]: Instituto Cervantes de Manila, 2011.

Abot-Tanaw: Sulyap at Suri sa Nagbabagong Kultura at Lipunan [Purview: Glancing and Critiquing a Changing Culture and Society]. By Bienvenido Lumbera. Quezon City: Linangan ng Kamalayang Makabansa, 1987.

Above the Crowd. By Lorna Kalaw-Tirol. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 2000. More showbiz-focused than Public Faces, Private Lives.

Acquiring Eyes: Philippine Visuality, Nationalist Struggle, and the World-Media System. By Jonathan Beller. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2006. “Directing the Real: Orapronobis [Fight for Us, dir. Lino Brocka (Bernadette Associates International, 1989)] against Philippine Totalitarianism (2000)”; “Third Cinema in a Global Frame: Curacha[: Ang Babaeng Walang Pahinga / A Woman without Rest, dir. Chito Roño (Regal Films, 1998)], Yahoo! and Manila by Night [dir. Ishmael Bernal (Regal Films, 1980)].”

All-Star Cast. By Emmie G. Velarde. Quezon City: Cine Gang, 1981.

All the Stars in the Sky: An Autobiography. By J. Eddie Infante. Manila: Front Page Newsmakers, 1978. On the actor and director Eddie Infante, whose heyday was during the First Golden Age of the 1950s.

Alone/Together. By Antoinette Jadaone. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2019. Screenplay of Alone/Together, dir. Antoinette Jadaone (Black Sheep & Project 8 Corner San Joaquin Projects, 2019).

Amalia Fuentes and Other Etchings. By Nick Joaquin [as Quijano de Manila]. [Manila]: National Book Store, 1977.

American Cinema of the 1990s. Ed. Chris Holmlund. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2008. José B. Capino, “Cinema and the Usable Past.”

American Tropics: Articulating Filipino America. By Allan Punzalan Isaac. Critical American Studies Series. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006. Includes discussions of Philippines-set mid-century Hollywood productions as well as of Andrew Cunanan, subject of several films & TV specials as the spree killer whose last victim was Gianni Versace.

The Americanization of Manila: 1898-1921. By Cristina Evangelista Torres. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2010. Includes accounts of Dean C. Worcester’s activities.

Amigo [Friend]: Screenplay. By John Sayles. Culver City, CA: Anarchist’s Convention Films, 2009. Screenplay of Amigo, dir. John Sayles (Anarchist’s Convention Films, 2010); paywalled access available online via John Sayles Blog.

The Anthropology of New Media in the Philippines. By Raul Pertierra. Quezon City: Institute of Philippine Culture, Ateneo de Manila University, 2010.

The Apocalypse Now Book. By Peter Cowie. 2000. Boston, Mass.: Da Capo Press, 2001. “The making of Francis Ford Coppola’s epic [American Zoetrope, 1979], based on unprecedented access to his private archives,… with 80 photographs, and exclusive detailed descriptions of material restored by Coppola for Apocalypse Now Redux (2001)” [cover description].

The Apocalypse of Marlon Brando: Death and Retribution in the Philippine Jungle. By Michael Coenen. St. Paul, MN: Ex Nihilo Media, 2019. Fiction “inspired by real events” (back cover), specifically the making of Francis [Ford] Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979).

Appropriation of Colonial Broadcasting: A History of Early Radio in the Philippines, 1922-1946. By Elizabeth L. Enriquez. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2008. Includes a CD-ROM of available audio samples.

Armida. By Armida Siguion-Reyna and Nelson A. Navarro. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2015. Comprising “The Unfinished Memoirs” by Armida Siguion-Reyna; and “Armida Siguion-Reyna: The Singer and the Song” by Nelson A. Navarro.

Artist Becomes Delegate of God (Artistang Naging Alagad ng Diyos): Completely Authorized and Illustrated Biography of Msgr. Aniceto Robledo. By Aniceto Robledo. Quezon City: Fidimica Enterprises, 1972. Religious testimonial of film actor Aniceto Robledo, known for Ang Lumang Simbahan [The Old Church], dir. Jose Nepomuceno (Malayan Movies, 1928).

Artista sa Pelikula ’85 / Actors’ Yearbook ’85. By the Screenwriters Guild of the Philippines. [Manila]: Fil-Asia Graphics, 1986.

The Asian Film Industry. By John A. Lent. Texas Film Studies Series. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1990. “Philippines” (case study).

AsiaPacifiQueer: Rethinking Genders and Sexualities. Ed. Fran Martin, Peter A. Jackson, Mark McLelland, and Audrey Yue. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008. Ronald Baytan, “Bading na Bading [Really Queer]: Evolving Identities in Philippine Cinema.”

[Association of Southeast Asian Nations] Country Reports on Film. Manila: Office of Media Affairs [of the] National Media Production Center, 1983. “A project of the Working Group on Film of the ASEAN Committee on Culture and Information” (self-description); includes “The Film Industry in the Philippines.”

Audience Reaction to IMV Films. By the United States Information Agency Office of Research. Series E-7-76. [Washington, DC]: USIA Office of Research, 1976. Audience tests in the Philippines, Colombia, and Lebanon.

Autohystoria: Visioni postcoloniali del nuovo cinema filippino [Postcolonial Visions of the New Filipino Cinema]. By Renato Loriga. Studi postcoloniali di cinema e media series no. 4. Canterano, RM: Aracne editrice, 2016. A study of Autohystoria, dir. Raya Martin (Cinematografica, 2007).

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Bagay Tayo [We’re Compatible]. By Jerry B. Gracio. Pasay City: Visprint, 2018. On the scriptwriter’s professional experience and intense personal relationship with Raymond Reña, nicknamed “Pitbull”; accompanied by a simultaneously published book of poetry titled Hindi Bagay [Incompatible].

Balik Tanaw [Recollection]: The Filipino Movie Stars of Yesteryears. By Romeo M. Romualdo Protacio. [San Diego]: Asian Journal San Diego, [2010].

Barcelona: A Love Untold. By Iris Lacap. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2019. Novelization of Barcelona: A Love Untold, dir. Olivia M. Lamasan (ABS-CBN Film Productions & Star Cinema, 2016).

Batch ’81: The Making of a Mike de Leon Film. By Jerome Gomez. Singapore: Asian Film Archive, 2017. Regarding Batch ’81, dir. Mike de Leon (MVP Pictures, 1982).

Being & Becoming: The Cinemas of Asia. Ed. Aruna Vasudev, Latika Padgaonkar, and Rashmi Doraiswamy. New Delhi: MacMillan, 2002. Clodualdo del Mundo Jr., “Philippines: Liver & Alive (1990s-2001)”; Luis H. Francia, “Side-stepping History: Beginnings to 1980s.”

Beyond the Mainstream: The Films of Nick Deocampo. By Nick Deocampo, ed. Lolita R. Lacuesta. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 1997. Production notes and essays on short filmmaking, plus the screenplays of the following short films by the author: “Oliver” (Deocampo, 1983); “Children of the Regime” (Deocampo, 1985); “Revolutions Happen Like Refrains in a Song” (Deocampo, 1987); “Ynang-Bayan [Mother-Country]: To Be a Woman Is to Live in a Time of War” (Deocampo, 1991); “Memories of Old Manila” ([Movie Workers Welfare Fund] Film Institute, 1993); “Isaak” (Metro Manila Film Festival Executive Committee, 1994); and “Sex Warriors and the Samurai” (Deocampo, 1995).

Beyond the Mark. By Mark Bautista. Pasig City: VRJ Books, 2018. Singer, actor, & model’s coming-out narrative.

Bhin Desher Cinema [Cinema from Foreign Countries]. By Nirmal Dhar. Howrah, India: Sahajpaath Publishers, 2019. In Bengali, for the Cinema Federation’s International Film Festival; 101 movies from countries outside India, including Posas [Shackled], dir. Lawrence Fajardo (Quantum Films & Cinemalaya Foundation, 2012).

Bien! Bien! Alagad ng Sining, Anak ng Bayan [Art’s Adherent, the Nation’s Offspring]. Ed. Teresita Gimenez-Maceda, Amado Anthony G. Mendoza III, and Galileo S. Zafra. Festschrift for Bienvenido L. Lumbera. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Sentro ng Wikang Filipino, 2020. Roland B. Tolentino, “Desire, Neoliberalism, Hollywood, and Asian Cinemas”; Romulo P. Baquiran Jr., “Pagtagos ng Mitiko at Modernidad sa mga Piling Metasineng Tula/Sugidanon [Infusion of Myth and Modernity in Selected Metafilmic Poetry / Panay Epics].”

The Blood of Government: Race, Empire, the United States, and the Philippines. By Paul A. Kramer. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006. Includes accounts of Dean C. Worcester’s activities and banning in the Philippines of the newsreel coverage of the heavyweight championship fight between Jack Johnson and James J. Jeffries, where Johnson (a black man) defeated his white contender.

Body Parts of Empire: Visual Abjection, Filipino Images, and the American Archive. By Nerissa Balce. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2016.

Bonifacio’s Bolo. By Ambeth Ocampo. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 1995. Includes “The Nora Aunor Mystique.”

Book of the Philippines. Ed. Yen Makabenta. Manila: Research and Analysis Center for Communications and Aardvark Associates, 1976. Includes biographies for Nora Aunor, Lamberto V. Avellana, et al.

Book Texts: A Pinoy Film Course. By Joel David. Original digital edition. Quezon City: Amauteurish Publishing, 2016. A collection drawn from previous book publications, available exclusively at the Ámauteurish! website.

Border Cinema: Reimagining Identity through Aesthetics. Ed. Monica Hanna and Rebecca A. Sheehan. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2019. José B. Capino, “Filipinos at the Border: Migrant Workers in Transnational Philippine Cinema.”

Break It to Me Gently: Essays on Filipino Film. By Richard Bolisay. Makati City: Everything’s Fine, 2019. Compiled primarily from author’s blog, Lilok Pelikula.

Broadcast Arts. Ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson. Vol. 10 (of 12 vols.) of Cultural Center of the Philippines Encyclopedia of Philippine Art. 2nd edition. Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines & the Office of the Chancellor, University of the Philippines Diliman, 2017. No equivalent volume in the 1st edition of the CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Art.

Broadcasting in Asia and the Pacific: A Continental Survey of Radio and Television. Ed. John A. Lent. International and Comparative Broadcasting series. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1978.

Brocka: The Filmmaker without Fear. By Jose T. Gamboa. Modern Heroes for the Filipino Youth series. Makati City: Bookmark, 2013. On Filipino director Lino Brocka.

Brutal/Salome. By Ricky Lee [as Ricardo Lee]. [Quezon City]: Cine Gang, 1981. Back-to-back screenplays of Brutal, dir. Marilou Diaz-Abaya (Bancom Audiovision, 1980); and Salome, dir. Laurice Guillen (Bancom Audiovision, 1981). The script of Salome was reprinted and translated in a foreign edition in 1993.

Bukas … May Pangarap [Tomorrow … There’ll Be a Dream]. By Ricky Lee [as Ricardo Lee]. [Quezon City: Markenprint, 1984]. Screenplay of Bukas … May Pangarap, dir. Gil Portes (Tri Films, 1984).

Burador [Draft]. Ed. Alvin Yapan and Glenda Oris. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2010. Classical & contemporary studies on Philippine popular culture.

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A Campaign for Public Decency and Civic Morality. Manila: Santo Tomas, 1912.

Cases on Arts and Culture Management in the Philippine Setting. Ed. Ben Paul B. Gutierrez. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2003. Manuel C. Dioquino Jr., “E-mail Conversations with Keith [Sicat] and Sari [Dalena]” (married film directors).

Celso Ad. Castillo: An Autobiography & His Craft. By Celso Ad. Castillo. [Manila]: CELCAS Film Entertainment, 2013.

Centennial Anniversary of the Philippine Cinema: Cinema, as a Response to the Nation. Ed. Kim Young-woo. Busan: Busan International Film Festival, 2018. Retrospective volume, with Korean translations.

The Chinese Question: Ethnicity, Nation, and Region in and Beyond the Philippines. By Caroline S. Hau. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2014. Includes discussions of the works of scriptwriter Ricardo Lee and producer Lily Monteverde (particularly Regal Films’ Mano Po [Your Blessing, Please] series), as well as of Armando Garces’s Dragnet (1973, scripted by Lee), Eddie Romero’s Ganito Kami Noon … Paano Kayo Ngayon? [As We Were] (1976), and Mark Meily’s Crying Ladies (2003).

Cine: Spanish Influences on Early Cinema in the Philippines. By Nick Deocampo. Vol. 1 of Reflections on One Hundred Years of Cinema in the Philippines series. Manila: Cinema Values Reorientation Program, National Commission for Culture and the Arts, 2007. Succeeded by Film (2011) and Eiga (2016).

Cinema and the Archives in the Philippines. Ed. Benedict Salazar Olgado. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 15, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines, 2018. Bliss Cua Lim, “Fragility, Perseverance, and Survival in State-Run Philippine Archives”; Bernadette Rose Alba Patino, “From Colonial Policy to National Treasure: Tracing the Making of Audiovisual Heritage in the Philippines”; Rosemarie O. Roque, “Artsibo at Sineng Bayan: Pagpapanatili ng Kolektibong Alaala at Patuloy na Kolektibong Pagsalungat sa Kasinungalingan at Panunupil [Archive and National Cinema: Preserving Collective Memory and the Continuing Collective Resistance against Lies and Repression]”; Nick Deocampo, “Envisioning a Rhizomic Audio-Visual Archiving for the Future.”

Cinema and the City: Film and Urban Societies in a Global Context. Ed. Mark Shiel and Tony Fitzmaurice. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2001. Rolando B. Tolentino, “Cityscape: The Capital Infrastructuring and Technologization of Manila.”

Cinema Filipinas: Historia, teoría y crítica fílmica (1999-2009) [Philippine Cinema: History, Theory, and Film Criticism (1999-2009)]. Ed. Juan Guardiola. [Andalucía]: Juna de Andalucía, Consejería de Cultura Fundación El Legado Andalusí, [2010]. Retrospective volume, with English translations.

The Cinema of Manuel Conde. By Nicanor G. Tiongson. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 2008. On the director, producer, and actor a.k.a. Juan Urbano, including a filmography of his productions.

Cinema of the Philippines: A History and Filmography, 1897-2005. By Bryan L. Yeatter. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2007.

Cinematographic Film Regulations: Administrative Order No. 50. By the Philippine[ Island]s Bureau of Internal Revenue. Manila: Bureau of Internal Revenue, 1918.

Cirio H. Santiago: Unbekannter Meister des B-Films [Unknown Master of B-Films]. By David Renske. Birkenfeld, Germany: Creepy*Images, 2020. “Unlike our other publications this book is very text-heavy and therefore in German language only! But we are already discussing the release of an English version as well” (Creepy*Images website announcement).

Claudia Zobel: An Untold Story. By Jessie B. Garcia. Iloilo City: [publisher unkn.], 1984. On the short life of the sex-film star.

A Closer Look at Manila by Night. Ed. Joel David. Forum of Kritika Kultura, no. 19. Quezon City: Department of English [of the] Ateneo de Manila University, 2012. A study of Manila by Night, dir. Ishmael Bernal (Regal Films, 1980); includes the screenplay by Ishmael Bernal, transcribed by Joel David and translated to English by Alfred A. Yuson.

The Colonial Documentary Film in South and South-East Asia. Ed. Ian Aitken and Camille Deprez. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2016. José B. Capino, “Figures of Empire: American Documentaries in the Philippines.”

Colonizing Filipinas: Nineteenth-Century Representations of the Philippines in Western Historiography. By Elizabeth Mary Holt. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2002. “History as Visual Spectacle”; “Filipinas and Photography.”

Communication and Media Studies in Asia. Ed. Lourdes M. Portus. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 7, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines, 2010. Taeyun Yu, “Eastern Gunslingers: Andrew Cunanan and Seung-Hui Cho in Western Media Imaginary.”

Communication and Media Theories. Ed. Rolando B. Tolentino, Patrick F. Campos, Randy Jay C. Solis, and Choy S. Pangilinan. Media and Communication Textbook Series. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2014. Isagani R. Cruz, “Si Lam-ang, si Fernando Poe Jr., at si Aquino: Ilang Kuro-Kuro tungkol sa Epikong Filipino [(Mythological figure) Lam-ang, (film auteur) Fernando Poe Jr., and (Benigno S.) Aquino (Jr.): A Few Ideas on the Philippine Epic]”; Rolando B. Tolentino, “Masses, Power, and Gangsterism in the Films of Joseph ‘Erap’ Estrada”; Soledad Reyes, “Ang Mambabasa/Manonood, ang ‘Mass Media,’ at ang Paglikha ng Kahulugan [The Reader/Viewer, the ‘Mass Media,’ and the Production of Meaning]”; Patrick D. Flores, “Bodies of Work: Sexual Circulation in Philippine Cinema”; Eulalio R. Guieb III, “Worlding the Third World (O Kung Paanong Nagkadaigdig ang Ikatlong Daigdig sa mga Pelikula ni Kidlat Tahimik) [Or How the Third World Became Worlded in the Films of Kidlat Tahimik].”

Confrontations, Crossings, and Convergence: Photographs of the Philippines and the United States, 1898-1998. Ed. Enrique B. de la Cruz and Pearlie Rose S. Baluyut. Los Angeles: Asian American Studies Center Press, 1998. A “companion to the photographic display [titled] Confrontations, Crossings and Convergence, on exhibit at UCLA’s Fowler Museum from August 19, 1998 to January 3, 1999[, as] curated by Enrique B. de la Cruz and Pearlie Rose Baluyut of UCLA’s Asian American Studies Center and art history department respectively, and Rico Reyes, an innovative, San Francisco-based artist” (from Augusto Fauni Espiritu’s review in the Journal of Asian American Studies).

The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos. By Primitivo Mijares. San Francisco: Union Square Publications, 1976. “The Loves of Marcos,” on Ferdinand Marcos’s predilection for movie stars, having married a beauty queen and aspiring film performer. Revised & annotated in 2017.

The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos: Revised and Annotated. By Primitivo Mijares. Quezon City: Bughaw, 2017. Original published in 1976.

Contemporary Asian Cinema: Popular Culture in a Global Frame. Ed. Anne Tereska Ciecko. Asian Cinema series. New York: Berg, 2006. José B. Capino, “Philippines: Cinema and Its Hybridity (Or You’re Nothing but a Second-Rate, Trying Hard Copycat).”

Contestable Nation-Space: Cinema, Cultural Politics, and Transnationalism in the Marcos-Brocka Philippines. By Rolando B. Tolentino. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2014. On the anti-dictatorship activism of film director Lino Brocka during the regime of Ferdinand E. Marcos.

A Continuing Narrative on Philippine Theater: The Story of PETA (Philippine Educational Theater Association). By Laura Samson, Brenda V. Fajardo, Cecilia B. Garrucho, Lutgardo L. Labad, and Ma. Gloriosa Santos Cabangon. Quezon City: Philippine Educational Theater Association, 2008. “PETA’s Foray into Broadcast Theater.”

Contra Mundum [Against the World]: On the Film Restoration of Nick Joaquin’s A Portrait of the Artist as Filipino. Ed. Angelo Rodriguez Lacuesta. [Quezon City]: Miguel P. de Leon Publishing, 2015. Regarding A Portrait of the Artist as Filipino, dir. Lamberto V. Avellana (Diadem Productions & Cinema Artists Philippines, 1965). See Ang Larawan [The Portrait]: From Stage to Screen, ed. Girlie Rodis, for the text of the play.

Conversations Pa More. By Ricardo F. Lo. Pasig City: VRJ Books, 2016. Sequel of Conversations with Ricky Lo (2001).

Conversations with Ricky Lo. By Ricardo F. Lo. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2001. Followed by Conversations Pa More (2016).

Coppola’s Monster Film: The Making of Apocalypse Now. By Steven Travers. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2016. Regarding Apocalypse Now, dir. Francis Ford Coppola (American Zoetrope, 1979).

El Cortometraje: Surgimiento de un nuevo cine filipino. By Nick Deocampo, trans. Mark Garner & Matxalen Goiria. Bilbao: Certámen Internacional del Cine Documental y Cortometraje, 1986. Spanish translation of Short Film (1985).

Crazy Beautiful You: The Novel. By Iris Lacap. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2017. Novelization of Crazy Beautiful You, dir. Mae Czarina Cruz [as Mae Cruz-Alviar] (ABS-CBN Film Productions & Star Cinema, 2015).

Creative Imaging: An Introduction to Film. By Jonah Añonuevo Lim. [Dumaguete City]: Jonah Lim, 1998.

Critic after Dark: A Review of Philippine Cinema. By Noel Vera. Singapore: BigO Books, 2005.

Critical Voice in Media Studies. Ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson and Violeda A. Umali. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 1, no. 1. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines, 2004. José B. Capino, “Prosthetic Hysteria: Staging the Cold War in Filipino/American Docudrama”; Johven [as Jovenal] Velasco, “Filipino Film Melodrama of the Late 1950s: Two Case Studies of Accommodation of Hollywood Genre Models”; Anne Marie G. de Guzman, “Philippine Experimental Film Practice: Influences and Directions through the Films of Roxlee.”

The [Cultural Center of the Philippines] Centennial Honors for the Arts. By the Cultural Center of the Philippines in Cooperation with the Centennial Commission. Manila: CCP, 1999. Includes entries for Nora Aunor, Daisy H. Avellana, Ishmael Bernal, Salvador F. Bernal, Amelia L. Bonifacio, Ryan Cayabyab, Benjamin H. Cervantes, Manuel Conde, Ernani J. Cuenco, Mike de Leon, Narcisa B. de Leon, et al.

Cultural Icons of the Philippines. By Visitacion “Chit” R. de la Torre. Makati City: Tower Book House, 2002.

Culture and Customs of the Philippines. By Paul A. Rodell. Culture and Customs of Asia series. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002. “Festivals, Theater, Film, Media, and Other Entertainment.”

Cultures and Texts: Representations of Philippine Society. Ed. Raul Pertierra and Eduardo F. Ugarte. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1994.

Cultures at War: The Cold War and Cultural Expression in Southeast Asia. Ed. Tony Day and Maya H.T. Liem. Studies on Southeast Asia No. 51. Ithaca, NY: Southeast Asia Program Publications, 2010. Francisco Benitez, “Filming Philippine Modernity During the Cold War: The Case of Lamberto [V.] Avellana.”

Curtain Call: Selected Reviews, 1957-2000. By Leonor Orosa Goquingco. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2001. Includes reviews of performances of film actor Nora Aunor at the Philippine Educational Theater Association.

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Daang Dokyu: A Festival of Philippine Documentaries. Ed. Richard Bolisay. Philippines [city unkn.]: FilDocs, 2020. A “DokBook” for the eponymous film festival; available as an Issuu digital file at the Daang Dokyu website.

Darna & Other Idols. By Marra PL. Lanot. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2012. Feature articles on Ryan Agoncillo, Gina Alajar, Lualhati Bautista, Ryan Cayabyab, Lucy & Richard Gomez, Marian Rivera, Rosanna Roces, Vilma Santos & Ralph Recto, Ali Sotto, et al.

Si Darna, ang Mahal na Birhen ng Peñafrancia, si Pepsi Paloma [Darna, the Blessed Virgin of Peñafrancia, (and) Pepsi Paloma]. By Rolando B. Tolentino. Kulturang Popular Series No. 3. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 2004.

Dawn of Freedom: A Toho Super Production. By Yutaka Abe and Hitō Hakengun. [Manila: Eiga Haikyūsha, 1943.] Commemorative volume for Dawn of Freedom, dirs. Abe Yutaka and Gerardo de Leon (Eiga Haikyūsha & Toho, 1944).

Deadma Walking [Superciliously Walking]. By Eric Cabahug. Pasig City: VRJ Books, 2017. Novelization of Deadma Walking, dir. Julius Alfonso (T-Rex Entertainment Productions, 2017); “dedma,” a contraction of “dead malice” (a transliteration of “patay malisya”), refers to feigning ignorance.

Dean Worcester’s Fantasy Islands: Photography, Film, and the Colonial Philippines. By Mark Rice. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2014.

The Debut: The Making of a Filipino American Film. By Gene Cajayon, John Manal Castro, and Dawn Bohulano Mabalon. Chicago: Tulitos, 2001. Regarding The Debut, dir. Gene Cajayon (5 Card Productions, Celestial Pictures, Center for Asian American Media, National Asian American Telecommunications Association, Visual Communication, 2000).

Deja Vu & Other Essays. By Marra PL. Lanot. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1999.

Diamond Anniversary of Philippine Cinema. Brochure for the 43rd awards ceremony of the Filipino Academy of Movie Arts and Sciences. Manila: [Movie Workers Welfare Fund], 1994. Includes a filmography of Philippine productions from the beginning to 1993 prepared by Lynn Pareja; significant for being the first published listing of Filipino movies made during the 1960s.

Digital Cinema in the Philippines, 1999-2009. By Eloisa May P. Hernandez. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2014.

Directory of Filipino Women in Radio, TV & Film Media. [Manila]: National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women, National Printing Office, and Philippine Information Agency, 1992.

Direk [Director]: Essays on Filipino Filmmakers. Ed. Clodualdo del Mundo Jr. and Shirley Lua. Critical Voices series. Eastbourne, East Sussex: Sussex Academic Press, 2019.

Direk 2 da Poynt [Direct(or) to the Point]. By Wenn V. Deramas. Pasig City: VRJ Books, 2016. Written and published autobiography, posthumously launched.

Displaying Filipinos: Photography and Colonialism in Early 20th Century Philippines. By Benito M. Vergara. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1995.

Dolphy: Hindi Ko Ito Narating Mag-isa [I Did Not Attain This by Myself]. By Bibeth Orteza. Quezon City: Kaizz Ventures, 2008. Authorized biography of actor-producer Rodolfo Vera Quizon, a.k.a. Dolphy.

Don Jose [Nepomuceno] and the Early Philippine Cinema. By Joe Quirino. History of the Philippine Cinema series no. 1. Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, 1983. First in the author’s projected 3-volume history series; no other volumes followed.

Doña Sisang and Filipino Movies. Ed. Monina A. Mercado. [Quezon City]: Vera-Reyes, 1977. Articles on Narcisa Buencamino de Leon (founder of LVN Pictures), her professional principles, and the films she produced; includes a filmography of LVN productions from 1939 to 1961.

Double Twisting Double Back: The Novel. By Arlo Icabandi. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2018. Novelization of Double Twisting Double Back, dir. Joseph Abello (Cinema One Originals, #TeamMSB, & Black Maria Pictures, 2018).

The Drama of It: A Life on Film and Theater. By Daisy Hontiveros Avellana. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 2009. Stage & film performer’s memoir of her life with Lamberto V. Avellana.

Dream Factories of a Former Colony: American Fantasies, Philippine Cinema. By José B. Capino. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010.

Duterte and Disinformation. Ed. Ma. Diosa Labiste. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 17, no. 1. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines, 2020. Adjani Guerrero Arumpac, “Regenerative Documentary: Posthuman Art in the Context of the Philippine Drug War”; Carlo Gabriel “Choy” Pangilinan, “Mula kay GMA Hanggang kay Duterte: Kritika sa Ilang Dokumentaryong Politikal at Pagmamapa sa Tunguhin ng Dokumentaryo sa Panahong Pinapaslang ang Politikal [From (Philippine Presidents Gloria Macapagal Arroyo) to (Rodrigo Roa) Duterte: A Critique of Selected Political Documentaries and a Mapping of Documentary Trends during the Slaughter of Political (Participants)].”

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Early Cinema in Asia. Ed. Nick Deocampo. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2017.

East Asian Popular Culture: Philippine Perspectives. Ed. Michiyo Yoneno-Reyes. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Asian Center, 2013.

Eat Bulaga: Ang Unang Tatlong Dekada [Lunchtime Surprise: The First Three Decades]. By Butch Francisco. Pasig City: TAPE, 2010. On the still-running daily noontime TV program that first aired in 1979.

Edifice Complex: Power, Myth, and Marcos State Architecture. By Gerard Lico. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2003. “The Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex,” with emphasis on the catastrophic construction history of the Manila Film Center.

Eiga: Cinema in the Philippines during World War II. By Nick Deocampo. Vol. 3 of Reflections on One Hundred Years of Cinema in the Philippines series. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2016. Preceded by Cine (2007) and Film (2011).

Elizabeth Ramsey: Queen of Philippine Rock n’ Roll. By Sansu Ramsey. Scotts Valley, CA: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2017. Authorized biography of the late multimedia entertainer, of Jamaican and Spanish descent, by her daughter.

Si Elwood, Pelikula, Atbp. [Elwood, Film, Etc.]. By Jojo Devera. Quezon City: Jojo Devera, 2011. A study of Elwood Perez as filmmaker.

Empire and Memory: Repercussions and Evocations of the 1899 Philippine-American War. By the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. [New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1999.]

The End of National Cinema: Filipino Film at the Turn of the Century. By Patrick F. Campos. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2016.

Exes Baggage. By Dwein Baltazar. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2018. Screenplay of Exes Baggage, dir. Dan Villegas (Black Sheep, 2018).

Exporting Entertainment: America in the World Film Market, 1907-34. By Kristin Thompson. London: British Film Institute Publishing, 1985. Describes how the Philippines, as the sole US colony, became the regional center for distribution of Hollywood film prints – which were flawed or easily damaged, since the Orient was regarded as a “junk” market: “90% of the prints from American exchanges were worn almost beyond being showable, with splices, torn sprockets, ends and titles missing” (per an exhibitor’s account).

Exposé: Peryodismong Pampelikula sa Pilipinas [Movie Journalism in the Philippines]. By Boy Villasanta. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 2007.

Expressions of Tagalog Imaginary: The Tagalog Sarswela and Kundiman in Early Films in the Philippines (1939-1959). By Antonio P. Africa. UNITAS: Semi-Annual Peer-Reviewed International Online Journal of Advanced Research in Literature, Culture, and Society, vol. 89, no. 2. Manila: University of Santo Tomas, 2016.

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Fandom and Cinephilia in Southeast Asia. Ed. Wikanda Promkhuntong and Bertha Chin. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 16, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines, 2019. Richard Bolisay, “‘Yes, You Belong to Me!’ Reflections on the JaDine [James Reid & Nadine Lustre] Love Team Fandom in the Age of Twitter and in the Context of Filipino Fan Culture”; Leticia Tojos, “Empowering Marginalized Filipinos Through Participatory Video Production.”

Fantasy-Production: Sexual Economies and Other Philippine Consequences for the New World Order. By Neferti X.M Tadiar [as Neferti Xina M. Tadiar]. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2004. “Himala, Miracle [dir. Ishmael Bernal (Regal Films, 1980)]: The Heretical Potential of Nora Aunor’s Star Power.”

Fields of Vision: Critical Applications in Recent Philippine Cinema. By Joel David. Book edition. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1995. Revised & updated for a digital edition in 2014.

Fields of Vision: Critical Applications in Recent Philippine Cinema. By Joel David. Digital edition. Quezon City: Amauteurish Publishing, 2014. Revision & update of the 1995 book edition, available at the Ámauteurish! website.

Fifty Shades of Philippine Art: Philippine Cinematic Art. By Andrea L. Peterson, Gaspar A. Vibal, Christopher A. Datol, and Nicanor A. Lajom. 50 Shades of Philippine Art series. Quezon City: Vibal, 2020.

Figures of Southeast Asian Modernity. Ed. Joshua Barker, Erik Harris, and Johan Lindquist. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2014. José B. Capino, “Domestic Helper.”

Filipiniana Reader: A Companion Anthology of Filipiniana Online. Ed. Priscelina Patajo-Legasto. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Open University, 1998. Clodualdo del Mundo Jr., “Komiks: An Industry, a Potent Medium, Our National ‘Book,’ and Pablum of Art Appreciation” & “Philippine Television: A History of Politics and Commerce”; Patrick D. Flores, “Philippine Cinema and Society”; Bienvenido Lumbera, “Brocka, Bernal & Co.: The Arrival of New Filipino Cinema” & “Problems in Philippine Film History”; Soledad S. Reyes, “The Philippine Komiks”; Nicanor G. Tiongson, “Becoming Filipino: 1565-1898”; Rolando B. Tolentino, “‘Inangbayan’ (Mother-Nation) in Lino Brocka’s Bayan Ko: Kapit sa Patalim (My Country: Clutching a Knife [Malaya Films & Stephan Films], 1985) and Orapronobis (Fight for Us [Bernadette Associates International], 1989).”

Filipino Directors Up Close: The Golden Ages of Philippine Cinema, 1950-2010. By Bibsy M. Carballo. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 2010.

Filipino Studies: Palimpsests of Nation and Diaspora. By Martin F. Manalansan and Augusto F. Espiritu. New York: New York University Press, 2016. Robert Diaz’s “Redressive Nationalisms, Queer Victimhood, and Japanese Duress” discusses the claims of Walter Dempster Jr. a.k.a. [Walterina] Markova: Comfort Gay [male enslaved for sex work by the Japanese Imperial Army during World War II], dir. Gil Portes (RVQ Productions, 2000).

Film. Ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson. Vol. 6 (of 12 vols.) of Cultural Center of the Philippines Encyclopedia of Philippine Art. 2nd edition. Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines & the Office of the Chancellor, University of the Philippines Diliman, 2017. Equivalent volume of Philippine Film, vol. 8 in the 1st edition of the CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Art.

Film: American Influences on Philippine Cinema. By Nick Deocampo. Vol. 2 of Reflections on One Hundred Years of Cinema in the Philippines series. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2011. Preceded by Cine (2007) and succeeded by Eiga (2016).

Filming in the Philippines. By Sonia P. Ner, Louise Arianne C. Ferriols, and Angelo J. Aguinaldo. [Pasig City]: Film Development Council of the Philippines, [2018].

Film and Freedom: Movie Censorship in the Philippines. By Guillermo de Vega. Manila: De Vega, 1975. Includes reviews of Tubog sa Ginto [Dipped in Gold], dir. Lino Brocka (Lea Productions, 1970); and Kung Bakit Dugo ang Kulay ng Gabi [Why Blood Is the Color of Night], dir. Celso Ad. Castillo (AA Productions, 1973).

Film & Politics in the Third World. Ed. John Downing. New York: Autonomedia, 1986. Luis Francia, “Philippine Cinema: The Struggle against Repression.”

Film Blockbusters from the Philippines. [Manila]: Manila International Film Festival, [1981]. “Dry run” for the regular MIFF, to be held starting the next year.

Film Criticism in the Philippines. Ed. Joel David and Joyce Arriola. Special issue of UNITAS: Semi-Annual Peer-Reviewed International Online Journal of Advanced Research in Literature, Culture, and Society, vol. 93, no. 1. Manila: University of Santo Tomas, 2020.

Film Directory of the Philippines. Ed. Ricardo V. Fernandez. [Manila: Philippine Motion Pictures Producers Association?], 1978.

Film in South East Asia: Views from the Region (Essays on Film in 10 South East Asia – Pacific Countries). Ed. David Hanan. Hanoi: Southeast Asia-Pacific Audio Visual Archive Association, 2001. Agustin Sotto, “Philippines: A Brief History of Philippine Cinema.”

Filmography of Filipino Films, 1982. By the Film Academy of the Philippines. [Manila]: Film Academy of the Philippines, [1983]. Launch publication for what has been subsequently called the Luna Awards, first held in 1984.

Films by Lino Brocka: A Retrospective, November 14 [to] December 2, 1990, American Film Archives. By the AMAUAN Filipino American Multi-Arts Center and Anthology Film Archives. AMAUAN Notebook series 7.1. New York: AMAUAN Filipino American Multi-Arts Center, 1990.

Films from a “Lost” Cinema: A Brief History of Cebuano Films. By Nick Deocampo. Quezon City: [Movie Workers Welfare Fund] Film Institute, 2005.

The Films of ASEAN. Ed. Jose F. Lacaba. Quezon City: Association of Southeast Asian Nations Committee on Culture and Information, 2000. Clodualdo del Mundo Jr., “Philippines.”

The First Experimental Cinema of the Philippines Annual Short Film Festival: November 16-21, 1982, Manila Film Center, [Cultural Center of the Philippines] Complex. Manila: ECP, 1982.

The First Impulse. By Laurel Fantauzzo. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2017. On the unsolved September 2009 murder case of film critics Alexis Tioseco and his Slovenian partner Nika Bohinc.

First Person, Plural: Essays. By Edel E. Garcellano. Quezon City: Edel E. Garcellano, 1987.

The Flip Side: A Filipino American Comedy. By Rod Pulido. Chicago: Tulitos, 2002. Screenplay of The Flip Side, dir. Rod Pulido (Pure Pinoy, 2001).

Focus on Filipino Films: A Sampling, 1951-1982. Manila: Manila International Film Festival, [1983]. Brochure for a special module selected by the Filipino Film Screening Committee and presented during the second MIFF edition, accompanied by freshly struck positive prints subtitled in English & French.

Footnotes to Philippine History. By Renato Perdon. Manila: Manila Prints, 2008. Includes a citation of Himala [Miracle], dir. Ishmael Bernal (Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, 1982), in discussing religious belief.

Frank G. Rivera’s Darna, Etc.: Screenplays Based on Characters Created by Mars Ravelo. By Frank G. Rivera and Mars Ravelo. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 2003. Adaptations by Frank G. Rivera of Mars Ravelo stories, including two produced films: Darna, dir. Joel Lamangan (Viva Films, 1991); and Dyesebel, dir. Emmanuel H. Borlaza (Viva Films, 1995; co-written with Borlaza).

Frisson: The Collected Criticism of Alice Guillermo. By Alice Guillermo, ed. Patrick D. Flores & Roberto G. Paulino. Quezon City: Philippine Contemporary Art Network, 2019. “The Walking Tall Syndrome”; “National Identity and the Artist”; “The Many Faces of Censorship”; “Rejecting the Anti-Women in Art and Media”; “Book-Burning in the 20th Century,” on the censorship of the Isip Pinoy [Pinoy Mentality] TV program. Available at the Philippine Contemporary Art Network website.

From Darna to Zsazsa Zaturnnah: Desire and Fantasy (Essays on Literature and Popular Culture). By Soledad S. Reyes. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 2009. Includes studies on komiks-to-film crossovers including the title texts.

From Globalization to National Liberation: Essays of Three Decades. By E. San Juan Jr. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2008. “Allegories of National Liberation” discusses Savage Acts and Fairs – possibly Savage Acts, dir. Pennee Bender, Joshua Brown, and Andrea Ades Vasquez (American Social History Productions, 1995) – as well as Lino Brocka’s opposition to Imelda Marcos’s edifice complex; similar passages appear in a number of earlier books by the author.

From Loren to Marimar: The Philippine Media in the 1990s. Ed. Sheila S. Coronel. Quezon City: Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism, 1999.

The Future of Film: 100 New Directors. By Cameron Bailey, Frederic Maire, Piers Handling, Sergio Wolf, Wieland Speck, Kim Dong-Ho, Marco Muller, Michel Ouedraogo, and Li Cheuk-to. Take 100 series. London: Phaidon Press Ltd., 2010. Each of ten film festival directors – representing Locarno, Toronto, Buenos Aires, Berlin, Pusan, Venice, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), and Hong Kong – selected ten of “the world’s most exceptional emerging film directors” along with a representative recent film from each one (from the Library of Congress’s publisher description); includes Philippine filmmakers Raya Martin with Maicling Pelicula nañg Ysañg Indio Nacional [A Short Film About the Indio Nacional] (Atopic films & The Hubert Bals Fund of the Rotterdam Festival, 2005), Brillante Mendoza with Masahista [The Masseur] (Gee Films International & Centerstage Productions, 2005), Pepe Diokno with Engkwentro [Clash] (Cinemalaya Foundation, 2009), and Auraeus Solito with Ang Pagdadalaga ni Maximo Oliveros [The Blossoming of Maximo Oliveros] (Cinemalaya Foundation & UFO Pictures, 2005).

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Gabby [Concepcion]. By George Vail Kabristante. Quezon City: Jingle Clan Publications, 1982. On the then-emerging teen star.

The Geopolitical Aesthetic: Cinema and Space in the World System. By Fredric Jameson. Perspectives series. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992. “Art Naïf and the Admixture of Worlds” is an appreciation of Kidlat Tahimik’s Mababangong Bangungot [Perfumed Nightmare] (Zoetrope Studios, 1977).

Geopolitics of the Visible: Essays on Philippine Film Cultures. Ed. Rolando B. Tolentino. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2000.

Getting to Know Nora. By Herbert L. Vego. Manila: Herbert L. Vego, 1973. On film actor Nora Aunor, published “with permission from Philippines Daily Express” (cover text).

Ginhawa, Kapalaran, Dalamhati: Essays on Well-being, Opportunity/Destiny, and Anguish. Ed. Consuelo J. Paz. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2009. Patrick D. Flores, “Hanapbuhay sa mga Pelikula ni Nora Aunor [Occupation in the Films of Nora Aunor].”

Glimpses: Essays, Letters, Memoirs (A Selection from the Writing Class from February to April, 2009). Ed. Letty T. Sala and Felipe L. Reyes. “Book concept” and foreword by Monina Allarey Mercado. Quezon City: Gabriel Books, 2009. A chapter by Michelle Gallaga comprises essays on her family, including her parents, producer-scriptwriter Madeleine Gallaga and director Peque Gallaga.

Glimpses of Freedom: Independent Cinema in Southeast Asia. Ed. May Adadol Ingawanij and Benjamin McKay. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Southeast Asia Program Publications, 2012. Tilman Baumgärtel, “The Piracy Generation: Media Piracy and Independent Film in Southeast Asia”; Eloisa May P. Hernandez, “The Beginnings of Digital Cinema in Southeast Asia”; Alexis A. Tioseco, “Like the Body and the Soul: Independence and Aesthetics in Contemporary Philippine Cinema”; John Torres, “Piracy Boom Boom.”

The Global Challenge in Services Trade: A Look at Philippine Competitiveness. Ed. Gloria O. Pasadilla. Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies and German Technical Cooperation, 2006. Gloria O. Pasadilla and Angelina M. Lantin, “Audiovisual Services Sector: Can the Philippines Follow ‘Bollywood’?”

Global Makeover: Media and Culture in Asia. Ed. Danilo Arao. Seoul & Quezon City: Asian Media and Culture Forum & Development Center for Asia Africa Pacific, 2010. Conference proceedings, including Patrick F. Campos, “The New Fantasy-Adventure Film as Contemporary Epic, 2000-2007”; Joel David, “Orientalism and Classical Film Practice”; and Shirley Palileo-Evidente, “The Alternative Metaphor in Metaphors: Discursive ‘Readings’ on Language, Symbols, and Enculturation in Philippine Cinema and other Media.”

Gloria Diaz and Other Delineations. By Nick Joaquin [as Quijano de Manila]. [Manila]: National Book Store, 1977.

The Golden Years: Memorable Tagalog Movie Ads 1946-1956 (From the Collection of Danny Dolor). Ed. Ronald K. Constantino and Ricardo F. Lo. Manila: Danny Dolor, 1994.

Goyo: Ang Batang Heneral [The Young General]: The History Behind the Movie. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2018. Regarding Goyo: Ang Batang Heneral, dir. Jerrold Tarog (TBA Studios, Artikulo Uno Productions, & Globe Studios, 2018); containing “an interview with Isagani Giron” (cover description).

Great & Famous Filipinos. By Jenny King. [Cainta, Rizal]: Worldlink Marketing Corp., 2002. Includes a number of pop-culture figures.

The Great Raid. By Carlo Bernard and Doug Miro. [City & publisher unkn.], 2001. Screenplay of The Great Raid, dir. John Dahl (Miramax, Marty Katz Productions, and Lawrence Bender Productions, 2005).

A Guide to the Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines: Understanding the Law, Empowering the Artist. By Nicolas B. Pichay. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 2010.

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Hallyu in and for Asia. Ed. Ha Ju-yong. Forum of Kritika Kultura, no. 28. Quezon City: Department of English [of the] Ateneo de Manila University, 2017. Joel David, “Remembering the Forgotten War: Origins of the Korean War Film and Its Development during Hallyu”; Maria Luisa Torres Reyes, “Multicultural Bildungsroman: Coming of Age between Han and Sana.”

Hello, Love, Goodbye: The Novel. By Charmaine Lasar. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2019. Novelization of Hello, Love, Goodbye, dir. Cathy Garcia-Molina (Star Cinema, 2019).

Heneral Luna: The History Behind The Movie. Ed. Ruby Rosa A. Jimenez. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2015. Regarding Heneral Luna, dir. Jerrold Tarog (Artikulo Uno Productions, 2015), based on “an interview with Dr. Vivencio R. Jose, author of The Rise and Fall of Antonio Luna” (cover text).

Hong Kong Film, Hollywood and the New Global Cinema. Ed. Gina Marchetti and Tan See Kam. London: Routledge, 2007. Bliss Cua Lim, “Generic Ghosts: Remaking the New ‘Asian Horror Film.’”

Hong Kong Screenscapes: From the New Wave to the Digital Frontier. Ed. Esther M.K. Cheung, Gina Marchetti, and Tan See-Kam. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2011. Roger Garcia, John Woo, & Jessica Hagedorn’s “Alternative Perspectives/Alternative Cinemas: Modern Films and the Hong Kong Experimental Scene” comprises “a discussion of a representative program of experimental films by three filmmakers – Jim Shum, Comyn Mo, and [Filipino] Raymond Red, all produced in Hong Kong and Manila in the 1980s under Garcia’s Modern Films Productions company, and shown at the Hollywood/Hong Kong at the Borders: Alternative Perspectives, Alternative Cinema symposium in April 2004” (chapter description in Oxford Index).

Hospicio [Hospice]: The Original Screenplay. By Bobby Bonifacio Jr. and Juvy G. Galamiton. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2018. Screenplay of Hospicio, dir. Bobby Bonifacio Jr. (Cinema One & Project 8 Corner San Joaquin Projects, 2018).

Hotel Purgatorio. By Noel F. Lim, Joey Agbayani, and David Hontiveros. Los Angeles: Dizzy Emu Publishing, 2020. Unproduced filmscript.

How to Enjoy a Film Intelligently for Value Education. By Tomas D. Andres. [Manila]: Our Lady of Manaoag Publishers, 1987.

The Hows of Us: The Novel. By Charmaine Lasar. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2018. Novelization of The Hows of Us, dir. Cathy Garcia-Molina (ABS-CBN Film Productions & Star Cinema, 2018).

Huwaran/Hulmahan Atbp. [Model/Mold Etc.]: The Film Writings of Johven Velasco. By Johven Velasco, ed. Joel David. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2009.

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I Am Jake. By Jake Zyrus. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2018. Transition account of the former Charice Pempengco.

Iconography of the New Empire: Race and Gender Images and the American Colonization of the Philippines. By Servando D. Halili Jr. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2006.

Images in the Dark: An Encyclopedia of Gay and Lesbian Film and Video (Revised and Updated). By Raymond Murray. London: Titan Books, 1998. Originally published 1994; includes an entry on Macho Dancer, dir. Lino Brocka (Award Films, Special People Productions, & Viva Films, 1988).

Images of Change: Essays and Reviews. By Alice Guillermo. Quezon City: Kalikasan Press, 1988.

El Imaginario colonial: Fotografia en Filipinas durante el periodo Español 1860-1898 [The Colonial Imaginary: Photography in the Philippines during the Spanish Period 1860-1898]. By Juan Guardiola. Barcelona: Casa Asia, [2006].

Implementing Rules and Regulations Pursuant to Section 3(a) of Presidential Decree No. 1986: The Movie and Television Review and Classification Board (MTRCB). By the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board. Quezon City: Office of the President, Republic of the Philippines, 1997.

Indie Cinema at mga Sanaysay sa Topograpiya ng Pelikula ng Filipinas [Indie Cinema and Essays on the Topography of Philippine Cinema]. By Rolando B. Tolentino. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 2016.

Inside Philippine Movies, 1970-1990: Essays for Students of Philippine Cinema. By J. Eddie Infante. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1991.

Institutions and Icons of Patronage: Arts and Culture in the Philippines during the Marcos Years, 1965-1986. By Pearlie Rose S. Baluyut. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 2012.

Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines and Related Laws: With Movie and Television Review and Classification Board (PD 1986), Videogram Regulatory Board (PD 1987), Children’s Television Act of 1997 and Others. Manila: Central Book Supply, 1998.

Inter/Sections: Isagani R. Cruz and Friends. Ed. David Jonathan Y. Bayot. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 2010. “A festival of writings by mentors, colleagues, friends, and students – writing in honor of [film & literary critic] Isagani R. Cruz” (David Jonathan Y. Bayot).

Interdisciplinarity in the Philippine Academia: Theory, History, and Challenges. Ed. Francis Sollano and Jose Mari B. Cuartero. Forum of Kritika Kultura, nos. 33 & 34. Quezon City: Department of English [of the] Ateneo de Manila University, 2020. Louie Jon A. Sánchez, “Ilang Eksplorasyon sa Pag-Aaral ng Kulturang Popular sa Filipinas [Some Explorations in the Study of Popular Culture in the Philippines].”

Interventions. By Edel E. Garcellano. Manila: Polytechnic University of the Philippines Press, 1998.

Isa Pa, With Feelings [Once More, with Feelings]: The Original Screenplay. By Jen Chuaunsu and Katherine Labayen. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2019. Screenplay of Isa Pa, With Feelings, dir. Prime Cruz (Black Sheep & APT Entertainment, 2019). Includes “interviews with cast and crew, and exclusive content inside” (cover description).

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Japanese Cultural Policies in Southeast Asia During World War II. Ed. Grant K. Goodman. New York: MacMillan, 1991. Motoe Terami-Wada, “The Japanese Propaganda Corps in the Philippines: Laying the Foundation.”

José Rizal. By Marilou Diaz-Abaya. Quezon City: University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication, 1999. Commemorative volume for José Rizal, dir. Marilou Diaz-Abaya (GMA Films, 1998).

Joseph Estrada and Other Sketches. By Nick Joaquin [as Quijano de Manila]. [Manila]: National Book Store, 1977.

Jowable [Lover Material]. By Darryl Yap. Pasig City: VRJ Books, 2019. Novelization of #Jowable, dir. Darryl Yap (Viva Films & VinCentiments, 2019). Based on videos first posted on Facebook; “jowa” is a contraction of “jowawa,” originally gay lingo for asawa or spouse, with the first sound replaced by “j-” (sometimes “sh-”) as a pseudo-French affectation from the 1970s.

Just a Stranger. By Blaise C. Gacoscos. Pasig City: VRJ Books, 2019. Novelization of Just a Stranger, dir. Jason Paul Laxamana (Viva Films, 2019).

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Kakaibang Tingin, Kakaibang Titig [Different Look, Different Gaze]: An Appreciation of the Golden Period in Philippine Cinema. By Kathy Almajose and JV Ramos. [Batangas City]: La Abuela Publishing House, 2013.

Kasaysayan at Pelikula [History and Film]: 100 Years of Cinema in the Philippines. Manila: National Centennial Commission, Presidential Management Staff, and Movie and Television Review and Classification Board, 1998.

Keeping the Flame Alive: Essays in the Humanities. Ed. Pacita Guevara-Fernandez. Diamond Jubilee Publication. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1983. Behn Cervantes’s “Ganyan Lang Talaga Yan [That’s Just How It Is]” describes the Philippine situation as “a large market that can be redirected in its tastes and attitudes so that they [sic] can dictate what types of movies should be made.”

Keywords: Essays on Philippine Media Cultures and Neocolonialisms. By Rolando B. Tolentino. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2016.

Kidlat Tahimik. By Edgar San Juan, Son-hwa Yi, Aramch’an Yi, and Hye-jong Mok. JIFF ch’ongso series. [Jeonju]: Jeonju International Film Festival, 2011. On film director Kidlat Tahimik.

Kilates: Panunuring Pampanitikan ng Pilipinas [Appraisal: Critical Literature of the Philippines]. Ed. Rosario Torres-Yu. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2006. Isagani R. Cruz, “Si Lam-ang, si Fernando Poe Jr., at si Aquino: Ilang Kuro-Kuro tungkol sa Epikong Filipino [(Mythological figure) Lam-ang, (film auteur) Fernando Poe Jr., and (Benigno S.) Aquino (Jr.): A Few Ideas on the Philippine Epic].”

Kings of the B’s: Working within the Hollywood System. By Todd McCarthy and Charles Flynn. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1975. “Eddie Romero.”

Kino-Sine: Philippine-German Cinema Relations. Ed. Tilman Baumgärtel. Makati City: Goethe-Institut Manila, 2007.

Kita Kita [I See You]: The Novel. By Sigrid Andrea Bernardo. Pasig City: VRJ Books, 2018. Novelization of Kita Kita, dir. Sigrid Andrea Bernardo (Spring Films, 2017).

Knife’s Edge: Selected Essays. By Edel E. Garcellano, ed. Caroline S. Hau. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2001.

Krisis at Pelikula: Mga Paunang Tala tungkol sa mga Imahe at Eksena sa Panahon ng Digma [Crisis and Film: Preliminary Notes about Images and Scenes during a Time of War]. By Epoy Deyto. Pasig City: TollidBilly & Shonenbat Collective, 2018. Available at the author’s Missing Codec blog.

Kritikal na Espasyo ng Kulturang Popular [Critical Spaces of Popular Culture]. Ed. Rolando B. Tolentino and Gary C. Devilles. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2015.

Kritisismo: Mga Teorya at Antolohiya para sa Epektibong Pagtuturo ng Panitikan [Criticism: Theories and an Anthology for the Effective Teaching of Literature]. Ed. Soledad S. Reyes. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 1992. Isagani R. Cruz, “Si Lam-ang, si Fernando Poe Jr., at si Aquino: Ilang Kuro-Kuro tungkol sa Epikong Filipino [(Mythological figure) Lam-ang, (film auteur) Fernando Poe Jr., and (Benigno S.) Aquino (Jr.): A Few Ideas on the Philippine Epic].”

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Ang Larawan [The Portrait]: From Stage to Screen. Ed. Girlie Rodis. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2017. Includes (among others) the screenplay by Alemberg Ang, Loy Arcenas, Ryan Cayabyab, Waya Gallardo, Celeste Legaspi, Dennis Marasigan, Girlie Rodis, & Rolando Tinio of Ang Larawan, dir. Loy Arcenas (Culturtain Musicat Productions, 2017).

Legacy. By Simon Godfrey Rodriguez, Nina Macaraig-Gamboa, and Wylzter Gutierrez. Modern Heroes for the Filipino Youth series. Makati City: Bookmark & Studio Graphics Corp., 2015. On film & theater director Lamberto V. Avellana.

Life Letters: Stories of a Wanderer. By Mel Tobias. Vancouver: New Hogarath Press, 2003.

Lilas [Film]: An Illustrated History of the Golden Ages of Cebuano Cinema. By Paul Douglas Grant and Misha Boris Anissimov. Cebu City: University of San Carlos Press, 2016.

Lino Brocka: The Artist and His Times. Ed. Mario A. Hernando. Manila: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas, 1993.

The Little Black Book [of] Movies: Over a Century of the Greatest Films, Stars, Scenes, Speeches and Events that Rocked the Movie World. Ed. Chris Fujiwara. London: Cassell Illustrated, 2007. “Part expert selection of [1,000] seminal moments, part glorious celebration of 100 years of cinema” (product description); includes contributions by Nick Deocampo and Noel Vera.

Lost Films of Asia. Ed. Nick Deocampo. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 2006.

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Mag-Artista Ka! Mga Dapat Mong Malaman Para Sumikat sa Showbiz sa Tamang Paraan, sa Tamang Panahon [Be a Star! What You Should Learn to Get Famous in Showbiz in the Right Way, at the Right Time]. By Noel D. Ferrer. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2015. Filipino version of Sisikat Din Ako!

Making Documentaries & News Features in the Philippines. By James Kenny and Isabel Enriquez Kenny. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 1996.

Making Waves: 10 Years of Cinemalaya [Philippine Independent Film Festival]. Ed. Clodualdo del Mundo Jr. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2014.

Malikhaing Pelikula: Mga Sanaysay Tungkol sa Pelikulang Pilipino [Creative Film: Essays on Philippine Cinema]. By Emmanuel A Reyes. Makati: Media Plus, 1996. Includes the screenplays of Dreaming Filipinos (Manny Reyes Productions, 1991) and Suwapings [The Laughing Barrio] (Safari Films, 1994), both directed by the author [as Manny Reyes].

Manila by Night. By Ishmael Bernal. Screenplay of Manila by Night, dir. Ishmael Bernal (Regal Films, 1980). See A Closer Look at Manila by Night, ed. Joel David.

Manila by Night: A Queer Film Classic. By Joel David. Queer Film Classics series, eds. Thomas Waugh & Matthew Hays. Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press, 2017. A study of Manila by Night, dir. Ishmael Bernal (Regal Films, 1980).

Marcos’ Lovey Dovie. By Hermie Rotea. Los Angeles: Liberty Publishing, 1983. On the affair between then-President Ferdinand E. Marcos and Dovie Beams, leading lady of Maharlika, dir. Jerr Hopper (Roadshow Films International & Solar Films, 1970).

Martial Law Melodrama: Lino Brocka’s Cinema Politics. By José B. Capino. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2020.

Martin Heidegger’s Being and Time and Manuel Silos’s Biyaya ng Lupa [Blessings of the Land]. By Edward delos Santos Cabagnot. Media and Communication series. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2018. A study of the 1927 Seit und Zeit text (in English translation) vis-à-vis Biyaya ng Lupa, dir. Manuel Silos (LVN Pictures, 1959).

Masculinity, Media, and Their Publics in the Philippines: Selected Essays. By Reuben Ramas Cañete. Media and Communication series. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2014. “Subjects of [the] essays in the book include post-EDSA homoerotic cinema, outright pornography, Bench billboard ads, Manny Pacquiao, and the [University of the Philippines’s symbolic] Oblation” (UP Press Facebook announcement).

Maxie: Book & Lyrics by Nicolas B. Pichay, Adapted from the Screenplay of Michiko Yamamoto. By Nicolas B. Pichay. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 2017. Based on Ang Pagdadalaga ni Maximo Oliveros [The Blossoming of Maximo Oliveros], dir. Aureaus Solito (Cinemalaya & UFO Pictures, 2005).

Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag [Manila: In the Claws of Neon], ’Merika [with Gil Jose Quito], at Alyas Raha Matanda [with Herky del Mundo]: Tatlong Dulang Pampelikula [Three Screenplays]. By Clodualdo del Mundo Jr. Manila: De La Salle University Press, 1992. Screenplays of Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag, dir. Lino Brocka (Cinema Artists, 1975); and ’Merika, dir. Gil Portes (Adrian Films, 1984).

Media and Communication Discourse. Ed. Danilo Arao. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 6, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines, 2009. Jose Gutierrez III, “Images of the Mother in Lino Brocka Films: 1970-1991.”

Intellectuals, the Public Arena, and the Nation. Ed. Patrick F. Campos. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 13, no. 1. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines, 2016. Joyce Arriola, “Visual Artists as Literary Artists: Fantasy and Folklore in 1950s Komiks-to-Film Adaptations.”

Media and Folklore. Ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 6, no. 1. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines, 2009. Patrick F. Campos, “The Fantasy-Adventure Films as Contemporary Epics, 2000-2007”; Alvin Yapan, “Nang Mauso ang Pagpapantasya: Isang Pag-aaral sa Estado ng Kababalaghan sa Telebisyon [When Fantasizing Was in Vogue: A Study on the State of Wonderment on Television].”

Media and Freedom. Ed. Victor Avecilla and Josefina Santos. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 4, no. 1. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines, 2007. Armida Vallejo Santiago, “The Liberative Role of Discourse in Articulating Women’s Issues and Concerns in Filipino Melodramatic Films from 1990 to 2000”; Leticia Tojos, “Empowering Marginalized Filipinos Through Participatory Video Production.”

Media and Gender Identity. Ed. Elizabeth L Enriquez. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 10, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines, 2013. Rommel B. Rodriguez, “Representasyon ng Pagkalalaki sa Pelikulang Bakbakan ni FPJ [Representation of Masculinity in the Action Film of Fernando Poe Jr.].”

Media and History. Ed. Georgina Encanto. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 3, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines, 2006. Michael Hawkins, “The Colonial Past in the Postcolonial Present: Eddie Romero’s Cavalry Command [Cirio H. Santiago Film Organization & Premiere Productions, 1958]”; Joyce Arriola, “The Impact of United States Colonization on the Rizalian Tradition in Cinema and Literature: A View of the Popular Arts as Postcolonial Historiography.”

Media and History. Ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 10, no. 1. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines, 2013. José S. Buenconsejo, “Orientalism in the Narrative, Music and Myth of the Amok in the 1937 Film Zamboanga [dir. Eduardo de Castro, prod. Filippine Productions]”; Ma. Rina Locsin, “A Brief History of the Baguio Sine.”

Media and Popular Culture. Ed. Rolando B. Tolentino. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 2, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines, 2005. Emil Flores, “The Concept of the Superhero in Filipino Films.”

Media and the Diaspora. Ed. Joel David and Violeda A. Umali. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 11, no. 1. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines, 2014. Louie Jon A. Sanchez, “Koreanovelas, Teleseryes, and the ‘Diasporization’ of the Filipino/the Philippines”; Joel David, “Phantom Limbs in the Body Politic: Filipinos in Foreign Cinema”; Andrew Leavold, “Bamboo Gods and Bionic Boys: A Brief History of the Philippines’ B Films.”

Media at Lipunan [Media and Society]. Ed. Rolando B. Tolentino and Josefina M.C. Santos. Media and Communication Textbook Series. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2014. Nicanor G. Tiongson, “The Politics of Film Censorship.”

Meet Me in St. Gallen. By Irene Emma Villamor. Pasig City: VRJ Books, 2018. Screenplay of Meet Me in St. Gallen, dir. Irene Emma Villamor (Spring Films & Viva Films, 2018).

Memoirs of an Asian Moviegoer. By Mel Tobias. Hong Kong: South China Morning Post, 1982.

Millennial Traversals: Outliers, Juvenilia, & Quondam Popcult Blabbery. By Joel David. Book edition. Quezon City: Amauteurish Publishing, 2019. Also available online as editions of UNITAS: Semi-Annual Peer-Reviewed International Online Journal of Advanced Research in Literature, Culture, and Society: Part 1 (Traversals within Cinema) in vol. 88, no. 1 (May 2015) and Part 2 (Expanded Perspectives) in vol. 89, no. 1 (May 2016). More information at the Ámauteurish! website.

Miracle in Cell No. 7. By Viva Films. Pasig City: VRJ Books, 2019. Regarding the production of Miracle in Cell No. 7, dir. Nuel C. Naval (Viva Films, 2019), remake of 7-beon-bang-ui seon-mul, dir. Hwan-kyung Lee (Fineworks & CL Entertainment, 2013).

Miss Granny. By Rinka Sycip. Pasig City: VRJ Books, 2018. Screenplay of Miss Granny, dir. Joyce Bernal (Viva Films & N2 Productions, 2018), remake of Soo-sang-han geun-yeo, dir. Dong-hyuk Hwang (Yeinplus Entertainment & CJ Entertainment, 2014); also “with lots of scenes not found in the movie, and several photos from the movie itself” (Viva Books website).

Mr. and Mrs. Cruz: The Novel. By Ethelinda Cais. Pasig City: VRJ Books, 2018. Novelization of Mr. and Mrs. Cruz, dir. Sigrid Andrea Bernardo (IdeaFirst Co. & Viva Films, 2018).

Modern Contemporary: Art Since 1980 at MOMA. Ed. Kirk Varnedoe, Paola Antonelli, and Joshua Siege. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2000. Features Bona, dir. Lino Brocka (NV Productions, 1980).

MOMOL Nights: The Original Screenplay. By Benedict Mique. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2019. Screenplay of MOMOL Nights, dir. Benedict Mique (Dreamscape Digital & Lonewolf Films, 2019); MOMOL is the anagram for “make-out make-out lang” or engaging in “merely” non-penetrative sexual activity.

Mona Lisa: A Portrait from the Memoirs of a Grandmother. By Celine Beatrice Fabie. Parañaque City: Mona Lisa Publication, [2013]. On the globally renowned film performer.

Moral. By Ricky Lee [as Ricardo Lee]. [Quezon City]: Seven-Star Productions, 1982. Screenplay of Moral, dir. Marilou Diaz-Abaya (Seven Stars Productions, 1982).

Motion Pictures Abroad: Philippines. By the United States Business and Defense Services Administration’s Scientific, Motion Picture, and Photographic Products Division. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1958.

Motion Pictures in Japan, Philippine Islands, Netherland East Indies, Siam, British Malaya, and French Indo-China. By Eugene Irving Way. Trade Information Bulletin No. 634, series of the United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. Washington, DC: Government Publishing Office, 1929.

Motion Pictures in the Philippines. By Vicente Salumbides. Manila: V.S., 1952.

A Movie Album Quizbook. By Jessie B. Garcia. Iloilo City: Erehwon Books & Magazines, 2004.

Movie-Made America: A Cultural History of American Movies. By Robert Sklar. Revised and updated. New York: Vintage Books, 1994. First published as Movie-Made America: A Social History of the American Movie (New York: Random House, 1975); Sklar observed that “because whenever wars were in progress the US government would pressure Hollywood to assist in the war effort, ‘echoes and shadows’ of the Viet Nam conflict could only be provided” via the Blood-Island film cycle initiated by Gerardo de Leon’s Terror Is a Man, a.k.a. Creature from Blood Island (Lynn-Romero Productions & Premiere Productions, 1959), a takeoff from H.G. Wells’s The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896) (from Joel David, “Phantom Limbs in the Body Politic,” Plaridel, vol. 11, no. 1, February 2014).

Movie Queen: Pagbuo ng Mito at Kapangyarihang Kultural ng Babae sa Lipunan [Formation of the Myth and Cultural Dominance of Women in Society]. By Cesar D. Orsal. Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 2007.

Movie Times. By Isagani R. Cruz. Manila: National Book Store, 1984.

Movies in a Third World Country. By Lucila V. Hosillos. Third World Studies Dependency series no. 15. [Quezon City]: Third World Studies Program [of the] University of the Philippines College of Arts and Sciences, 1978.

Movies that Matter: A Festschrift in Honor of [film critic & professor] Nicasio D. Cruz, S.J. Ed. Severino R. Sarmenta, Jr. [Quezon City]: Office of Research and Publications, Loyola Schools, Ateneo de Manila University, 2008.

Mowelfund Film Institute Catalog. By Ricky Orellana. Quezon City: [Movie Workers Welfare Fund] Film Institute, 2001.

Multiculturalism, Postcoloniality, and Transnational Media. Ed. Ella Shohat and Robert Stam. Rutgers Depth of Field Series. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2003. Talitha Espiritu, “Multiculturalism, Dictatorship, and Cinema Vanguards: Philippine and Brazilian Analogies.”

My Filipino Connection: The Philippines in Hollywood. By Ruben Nepales. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2013. Includes articles on Bernardo Bernardo, Vanessa Hudgens, Jake Zyrus [as Charice Pempengco], Darren Criss, Bessie Badilla, Matthew Libatique, Ramona Diaz, Mikey Bustos, et al.

My Life with My Brother Rudy Fernandez. By Marie P. Fernandez. [City unkn.]: Marie P. Fernandez, 2008. On the late action star, son of film director Gregorio Fernandez.

The Myth of the Lazy Native: A Study of the Image of the Malays, Filipinos and Javanese from the 16th to the 20th Century and Its Function in the Ideology of Colonial Capitalism. By Syed Hussein Alatas. London: Frank Cass, 1977.

Mythopoeic Poe: Understanding the Masa as Audience through the Films of Fernando Poe Jr. By Alfonso B. Deza. Manila: Great Books Publications, 2006.

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Naglalayag [Silent Passage]. By Irma V. Dimaranan. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2006. Screenplay of Naglalayag, dir. Maryo J. de los Reyes (Angora Films, 2004).

The National Artists of the Philippines. Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines & Anvil Publishing, 1998. 1972-97 coverage, followed by The National Artists of the Philippines 1999-2003 (2003). Lena S. Pareja, “Lamberto V. Avellana (Theater/Film, 1976): An Innate Love for Truth and Beauty”; Amadis Ma. Guerrero, “Gerardo de Leon (Film, 1982): Views from the Master Filmmaker”; Ramil Digal Gulle, “Rolando S. Tinio (Theater/Literature, 1997): The Song of Rolando: Creative Genius.” The entry “Lino Brocka (Film/Broadcast Arts, 1997): Human Being, Artist, Filipino” contains the following tagline credits: the Ramon Magsaysay Awards Foundation program brochure (September 1985), Mario A. Hernando, and Marilou Diaz-Abaya.

The National Artists of the Philippines 1999-2003. Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines & Anvil Publishing, 2003. Preceded by National Artists of the Philippines (1998). Justino Dormiendo, “Ishmael Bernal (Film, 2001): The Finest Poet of Philippine Cinema”; Lena S. Pareja, “Eddie Romero (Film, 2003): World-Class Filmmaker.”

The National Pastime: Contemporary Philippine Cinema. By Joel David. Book edition. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 1990. Revised & updated for a digital edition in 2014.

The National Pastime: Contemporary Philippine Cinema. By Joel David. Digital edition. Quezon City: Amauteurish Publishing, 2014. Revision & update of the 1990 book edition, available at the Ámauteurish! website.

National/Transnational: Subject Formation and Media in and on the Philippines. By Rolando B. Tolentino. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2001. “‘Inangbayan’ (Mother-Nation) in Lino Brocka’s Bayan Ko: Kapit sa Patalim (My Country: Clutching a Knife [Malaya Films & Stephan Films], 1985) and Orapronobis (Fight for Us [Bernadette Associates International], 1989)”; “Issues of the ‘Filipino/a’ in Asia-Pacific American Media Arts”; “Kidlat Tahimik in the Rhetoric of First World Theory”; “Subcontracting Imagination and Imageries of Bodies and Nations.”

Native Resistance: Philippine Cinema and Colonialism, 1898-1941. By Clodualdo del Mundo Jr. Manila: De La Salle University Press, 1998.

Necessary Fictions: Philippine Literature and the Nation, 1946-1980. By Caroline S. Hau. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2000. “Alien Nation” discusses the characters of Quiroga in José Rizal’s Noli Me Tángere [Touch Me Not] (1887), Ah Tek in Edgardo M. Reyes’s Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag [In the Claws of Neon] (1967), and Wei-fung in Ricardo Lee’s short story “Huwag, Huwag Mong Kukuwentuhan ang Batang si Wei Fung [Don’t, Don’t Tell Stories to Young Wei Fung]” (1969) – works and/or authors associated with films; Necessary Fictions is complemented by another text by the same author, titled On the Subject of the Nation: Filipino Writings from the Margins, 1981-2004 (2004).

Neoliberalism and Global Cinema: Capital, Culture, and Marxist Critique. Ed. Jyotsna Kapur and Keith B. Wagner. New York: Routledge, 2011. Bliss Cua Lim, “Gambling on Life and Death: Neoliberal Rationality and the Films of Jeffrey Jeturian.”

Nora [Aunor]. Ed. Jaya Jacobo. Special issue of Bikol Studies: Perspectives & Advocacies, issue no. 1. Naga City: Ateneo de Naga University, 2020.

Nora Aunor and Other Profiles. By Nick Joaquin [as Quijano de Manila]. [Manila]: National Book Store, 1977.

Si Nora Aunor sa mga Noranian: Mga Paggunita at Pagtatapat [Nora Aunor to the Noranians: Remembrances and Confessions]. Ed. Nestor de Guzman. Quezon City: Milflores Publishing, 2005.

Nora Aunor: Tagumpay sa Bawat Awit [Triumph in Every Song]. Ed. Jose Reyes Martinez. Sitsiritsit Special No. 1. Quezon City: Asia-Pacific Publications, 1971. “Book-length fully illustrated biography” featuring various topics plus “her songs, with guitar chords” (cover description).

Nora Aunor: Through the Years…. Ed. Nestor de Guzman and Albert M. Sunga. San Juan City: Ace Entertainment, 2004. Commemorative volume for the Through the Years concert.

Notes on Philippine Cinema. By Emmanuel A Reyes. Manila: De La Salle University Press, 1989. Includes an interview conducted for the documentary Vic Silayan: An Actor Remembers, dir. Manny Reyes (Manny Reyes, 1984).

Notes: On the Making of Apocalypse Now. By Eleanor Coppola. 1979. London: Faber and Faber, 1995. Regarding Apocalypse Now, dir. Francis Ford Coppola (American Zoetrope, 1979).

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On Nora Aunor and the Philippine Star System. Ed. Joel David. Forum of Kritika Kultura, no. 25. Quezon City: Department of English [of the] Ateneo de Manila University, 2015.

One Hundred Acclaimed Tagalog Movies: Sineng Mundo [Film World], Best of Philippine Cinema. By Mel Tobias. Vancouver: Peanut Butter Publishing, 1998.

One More Chance. By Juan Miguel Sevilla. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2015. Novelization of One More Chance, dir. Cathy Garcia-Molina (ABS-CBN Film Productions & Star Cinema, 2007).

[Overseas Filipino Workers] in Foreign Cinema. Ed. Joel David. Monograph of Kritika Kultura, nos. 21 & 22. Quezon City: Department of English [of the] Ateneo de Manila University, 2014.

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Pagbasa ng Panitikan at Kulturang Popular: Piling Sanaysay, 1976-1996 [Reading Literature and Popular Culture: Selected Essays, 1976-1996]. By Soledad S. Reyes. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1997.

Paghahanap ng Virtual na Identidad [The Search for Virtual Identity]. By Rolando B. Tolentino. Kulturang Popular Series No. 5. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 2004.

Pagpasok sa Eksena: Ang Sinehan sa Panitikan at Pag-aaral ng Piling Sinehan sa Recto [Scene Entrance: The Movie House in Literature and the Study of Selected Theaters along Recto (Avenue)]. By Chuckberry J. Pascual. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2016.

Panahon ng Hapon: Sining sa Digmaan, Digmaan sa Sining [The Japanese Period: Art in War, War in Art]. Ed. Gina V. Barte. Studies on Philippine Art and Society, 1942-1945 series. Manila: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas, 1992. Exhibition & conference publication, including Agustin Sotto, “War and the Aftermath in Philipine Cinema”; and Motoe Terami-Wada, “Strategy in Culture: Cultural Policy and Propaganda in the Philippines, 1942-1945.”

PA(ng)LABAS: Architecture + Cinema – Projection of Filipino Space in Film. By Gerard Lico. Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts, 2009.

PA(ng)LABAS: Architecture + Cinema – Projection of Filipino Space in Film. By Gerard Lico. 2nd ed. Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts, 2020. “A new essay tracing the development and decline of Filipino cinema houses, referred to in this book as Popcorn Palaces, is the main highlight of this book and features rare archival images” (author’s Facebook announcement).

Pang MMK [For (the television program) Maalaala Mo Kaya / Would You Remember]: The Original Screenplay. By John Lapus. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2018. Screenplay of Pang MMK, dir. John Lapus (Cinema One Originals, 2018).

Passionate Revolutions: The Media and the Rise and Fall of the Marcos Regime. By Talitha Espiritu. Ohio University Research in International Studies Southeast Asia Series No. 132. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2017. “National Discipline and the Cinema”; “The New Politics, Lino Brocka, and People Power”; “The Force of National Allegory.”

The Past, Love, Money and Much More: Philippines-Japan Relations since the End of the Second World War. Ed. Lydia N. Yu-Jose. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2008. Tito Genova Valiente, “The Japanese in the Filipino Cinematic Space.”

Pelikula: An Essay on the Philippine Film. By Bienvenido Lumbera. [Manila]: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas, 1989. Later expanded in the Tuklas Sining [Art Discovery] series by Lumbera, Agustin Sotto, and Nestor U. Torre.

Pelikula: An Essay on the Philippine Film, 1897-1960. By Agustin Sotto. Tuklas Sining [Art Discovery] series. [Manila]: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas, 1992. Continued in Bienvenido Lumbera’s Pelikula: An Essay on the Philippine Film, 1961-1992 and supplemented by Nestor U. Torre’s Pelikula: An Essay on Philippine Film, Touchstones of Excellence.

Pelikula: An Essay on the Philippine Film, 1961-1992. By Bienvenido Lumbera. Tuklas Sining [Art Discovery] series. [Manila]: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas, 1992. Continuation of Agustin Sotto’s Pelikula: An Essay on the Philippine Film, 1897-1960 and supplemented by Nestor U. Torre’s Pelikula: An Essay on Philippine Film, Touchstones of Excellence.

Pelikula: An Essay on Philippine Film, Touchstones of Excellence. By Nestor U. Torre. Tuklas Sining [Art Discovery] series. [Manila]: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas, 1994. Supplementary to Agustin Sotto’s and Bienvenido Lumbera’s 1992 Pelikula accounts.

Pelikula at Lipunan [Film and Society]: Festival of Filipino Film Classics and Short Films. [Quezon City]: National Commission for Culture and the Arts Cinema Committee, Film Academy of the Philippines, and Movie Workers Welfare Fund, 1994.

Pelikulang Komiks [Comics Films]: Toward a Theory of Filipino Film Adaptation. By Joyce L. Arriola. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2019.

Ang Pelikulang Tagalog… [The Tagalog Movie…]. By Teodoro Virrey. Publications of the Institute of National Language, vol. 4, no. 11. Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1938.

Philippine Cinema and the Cultural Economy of Distribution. By Michael Kho Lim. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.

Philippine Film. Ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson. Vol. 8 (of 10 vols.) of CCP [Cultural Center of the Philippines] Encyclopedia of Philippine Art. 1st edition. Manila: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas, 1994. 2nd edition’s equivalent volume is titled Film.

Philippine Film Catalogue. By the Film Development Council of the Philippines. Pasig City: Film Development Council of the Philippines, [2007].

Philippine Film Festival: Fiesta of the Filmmakers. Ed. Ishizaka Kenji. Introducing Southeast Asian Cinema series no. 3. Tokyo: Masaru Inoue, 1991.

Philippine Gay Culture: Binabae to Bakla, Silahis to MSM [Invert to Gay, Bisexual to Men Who Have Sex with Men]. By J. Neil C. Garcia. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2008. Reprint of Philippine Gay Culture, the Last Thirty Years: Binabae to Bakla, Silahis to MSM (1996). Mentions problematic depictions of queer sexualities in Philippine commercial cinema.

Philippine LGBT-Related Films, Including: Masahista [Masseur, dir. Brillante Mendoza (Gee Films Productions International & Centerstage Productions, 2005)], Aishite Imasu 1941: Mahal Kita [I Love You, dir. Joel Lamangan (Regal Films, 2004)], Miguel/Michelle [dir. Gil Portes (Forefront Films, 1998)], Macho Dancer [dir. Lino Brocka (Award Films, Special People Productions & Viva Films, 1988)], Ang Lalaki sa Buhay ni Selya [The Man in Selya’s Life, dir. Carlos Siguion-Reyna (Reyna Films & Star Pacific Cinema, 1987)], The Blossoming of Maximo Oliveros [dir. Aureaus Solito (Cinemalaya & UFO Pictures, 2005)], Paper Dolls (film) [dir. Tomer Heymann (Claudius Films, L.M. Media, Heymann Brothers Films, & The Film Sales Co., 2006)], Twilight Dancers [dir. Mel Chionglo (Centerstage Productions, 2006)], Burlesk King [dir. Mel Chionglo (Seiko Films, 1999)], Markova: Comfort Gay [dir. Gil Portes (RVQ Productions, 2000)]. [Toronto: Hephaestus Books, 2011.]

Philippine Mass Media: A Book of Readings. Ed. Clodualdo del Mundo Jr. and Jose Mari Magpayo. Manila: Communication Foundation for Asia, 1986. Mario A. Hernando, “Against All Odds: The Story of the Filipino Film Industry (1978-1982)”; Bienvenido Lumbera, “Problems in Philippine Film History”; Eduardo Sazon, “Film Distribution and Exhibition.”

“Philippine Motion Pictures, 1908-1958: A Checklist of the First Fifty Years.” By Maria Carmencita A. Momblanco. Master’s thesis, 2 vols. University of the Philippines, 1979.

Philippine Mass Media in Perspective. Ed. Gloria D. Feliciano and Crispulo J. Icban Jr. Quezon City: Capitol, 1967. T.D. Agcaoili, “Movies.”

Philippine New Wave: This Is Not a Film Movement. By Khavn de la Cruz, Dodo Dayao, and Mabie Alagbate. Quezon City: Noel D. Ferrer, MovFest, and Instamatic Writings, 2010.

Philippine Politics and Society in the Twentieth Century: Colonial Legacies, Postcolonial Trajectories. By Eva-Lotta E. Hedman and John T. Sidel. Politics in Asia series. London: Routledge, 2000. Discusses the “mockery of mimicry” in the films of Joey de Leon and Rene Requiestas.

The Philippine Screen Golden Book Album ng mga Artista [Album of Actors]: Favorite Movie Stars with Autographed Fotos. [Manila: Philippine Screen Publishing Co., 1952.]

Philippine Studies: Have We Gone Beyond St. Louis? Ed. Priscelina Patajo-Legasto. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2008. Joel David, “Awake in the Dark: Philippine Film during the Marcos Era”; Eleanor Sarah D. Reposar, “Carlo Vergara’s Zsazsa Zaturnnah and the Tradition of Subversion in Philippine Komiks”; Johven [as Jovenal] D. Velasco, “‘Feminized’ Heroes and ‘Masculinized’ Heroines: Changing Gender Roles in Contemporary Phiippine Cinema?”

Philippines Media Yearbook. By Kevin Trzcinski and Owen Hughes. Hong Kong: Cornerstone Associates Ltd., 1996.

Pinoy Pop Culture. By Gilda Cordero-Fernando and M.G. Chaves. [Manila]: Bench/Suyen Corp., G.C. Fernando, and M.G. Chaves, 2001.

Piolo, Believing: A Pictorial Biography of Piolo Pascual. By David Fabros. Quezon City: Vibal Foundation, 2007. On the contemporary producer & actor.

Pitong Teleplay [Seven Teleplays]. Ed. Fanny A. Garcia and Armando Lao. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 1995. TV scripts by Ricky Lee, Armando Lao, Lualhati Bautista, Jose F. Bartolome, Rosalie Matilac, Dado C. Lumibao, and Fanny A. Garcia.

Place, Power, Situation and Spectacle: A Geography of Film. Ed. Stuart C. Aitken and Leo E. Zonn. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1994. Gerald M. Macdonald’s “A Mapping of Cinematic Places: Icons, Ideology, and the Power of (Mis)Representation” provides an assessment of Kidlat Tahimik’s Mababangong Bangungot [Perfumed Nightmare] (Zoetrope Studios, 1977).

Planet TV: A Global Television Studies Reader. Ed. Lisa Parks and Shanti Kumar. New York: New York University Press, 2002. José B. Capino, “Soothsayers, Politicians, Lesbian Scribes: The Philippine Movie Talk Show.”

Political and Social Issues in Philippine Film: Two Perspectives. By Agustin Sotto and Marilou Diaz-Abaya. Political and Social Change Working Paper Series, No. 12. Canberra: Department of Political and Social Change, Division of Politics and International Relations, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, [1995].

Pornography and Culture. Ed. Peter Lehman. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2006. José B. Capino, “Asian College Girls and Oriental Men with Bamboo Poles: Reading Asian Pornography.”

The Postcolonial Perverse: Critiques of Contemporary Philippine Culture, Volume 1. By J. Neil C. Garcia. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2014. Table of Contents contains the heading “Volume One: The Postcolonial”; includes “Philippine Cinema: The State of the Art.”

Postmodern Filming of Literature: Sources, Contexts, and Adaptations. By Joyce L. Arriola. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 2006.

Presidential Decree No. 1986 Creating the Movie & Television Review and Classification Board and Implementing Rules and Regulations, 2004. [Manila]: MTRCB, [2004].

Primed: Selected Stories 1972-1992. By Jo-Ann Q. Maglipon. Reportage on an Archipelago series. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 1993. “MIFFed [Manila International Film Festival]”; “Free the Artist!”; “The Republic of the Philippines vs. Lino Brocka, et al.”; “Canuplin: The Little Tramp Time Left Behind”; “Erap [Joseph Estrada]”; “Phantoms of the Cinema”; “Starlight, Starbright”; “Mega Mother Lily [Monteverde]: Superstar for All Seasons.”

Pro Bernal Anti Bio. By Ishmael Bernal, Jorge Arago, and Angela Stuart Santiago. Manila: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2017. Biography of Ishmael Bernal, authorizing Jorge Arago, completed by Angela Stuart Santiago.

Proceedings of the 8th ASEAN [Association of Southeast Asian Nations] Inter-University Conference on Social Development. Ed. Almond Pilar Aguila, Danilo Araña Arao, Alfonso Deza, Lourdes Portus, and Fernando Paragas. CD-ROM format. Quezon City: University of the Philippines, Union Network International – Asia and Pacific, Free Trade Alliance, & National University of Singapore, 2008. Sheryl Rose M. Andes, “A Peek at the Winners of the Most Gender-Sensitive Film Awards of the Metro Manila Film Festival”; David R. Corpuz, “Subverting Zsa-Zsa Zaturnnah: A Critique of the Original Graphic Novel and Stage and Film Adaptations of Ang Kagila-gilalas na Pakikipagsapalaran ni Zsa-Zsa Zaturnnah [The Spectacular Adventures of Zsa-Zsa Zaturnnah]”; Joel David, “The Cold War and Marcos-Era Cinema in the Philippines”; Jongsuk Ham, “Online Games and Gender Issues in South Korea and the Philippines”; Roy Nicolas R. Molon Jr., “Women in a Better Light”; Danny Yu, “Gun-Toting Orientals: Global and Local Media Coverage of Andrew Cunanan and Cho Seung Hui.”

Proceedings of the Whither the Orient: Asians in Asian and Non-Asian Cinema Conference, Kimdaejung Convention Center, Gwangju, Korea, 28-29 October 2006. Ed. Joel David. Seoul: Asia Culture Forum, 2006.

A Profile on Motion Pictures. By the Philippines Bureau of Export Trade Promotion. Product Profile series. [Manila]: Product Research and Strategy Group, Bureau of Export Trade Promotion, Department of Trade & Industry, 1989.

Public Faces, Private Lives. By Lorna Kalaw-Tirol. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 2000. Emphasizes less prominent celebrities than Above the Crowd.

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Queen Vi: An Intimate Biography. By Jessie B. Garcia. Bacolod City: Jessie B. Garcia, 1984. On film star Vilma Santos; allegedly unauthorized and pulled from distribution after initial sales.

Queer Asian Cinema: Shadows in the Shade. Ed. Andrew Grossman. New York: Harrington Park Press, 2000. Co-published simultaneously as Journal of Homosexuality’s vol. 39, nos. 3-4 issues; Rolando B. Tolentino, “Transvestites and Transgressions: Panggagaya [Mimicry] in Philippine Gay Cinema.”

Queer Looks: Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Film and Video. Ed. Martha Gever, John Greyson, and Pratibha Parmar. New York: Routledge, 1993. Nick Deocampo, “Homosexuality as Dissent / Cinema as Subversion: Articulating Gay Consciousness in the Philippines.”

Queer Media and Representations. Ed. Rolando B. Tolentino. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 9, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines, 2012. Joel David, “Thinking Straight: Queer Imaging in Lino Brocka’s Maynila[: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag / Manila: In the Claws of Neon, dir. Lino Brocka, prod. Cinema Artists] (1975)”; J. Neil C. Garcia, “Postcolonial Camp: Hybridity and Performative Inversions in Zsazsa Zaturnnah [Ze Moveeh, dir. Joel Lamangan, prod. Regal Films, Regal Multimedia, & Ignite Entertainment (2006)].”

Querida [Paramour]: An Anthology. Ed. Caroline S. Hau, Isabelita O. Reyes, and Katrina Tuvera. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2013. Ricky [as Ricardo] Lee, Raquel Villavicencio, & Ishmael Bernal, Relasyon [Affair], screenplay of the film, dir. Ishmael Bernal (Regal Films, 1982).

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Rampa: Mga Sanaysay [Sashay: Essays]. By Danton Remoto. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 2008. Includes discourses on Freddie Aguilar, Nora Aunor, Ishmael Bernal, Darna, Joel Lamangan, Manila by Night [dir. Ishmael Bernal (Regal Films, 1980)], and Miss Saigon.

A Reader in Philippine Film: History and Criticism (Essays in Honor of [film & culture critic] Nicanor G. Tiongson). Ed. Jonathan Chua, Rosario Cruz-Lucero, and Rolando B. Tolentino. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2017.

A Reader on International Media Piracy: Pirate Essays. Ed. Tilman Baumgärtel. MediaMatters series. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2015. Tilman Baumgärtel, “The Triumph of the Pirates: Books, Letters, Movies, and Vegan Candy – Not a Conclusion.”

Reading Popular Culture. Ed. Soledad S. Reyes. Quezon City: Office of Research and Publications [of the] Ateneo de Manila University, 1991. Papers presented at the First National Conference on Popular Culture at the Ateneo de Manila University on November 17-19, 1988; includes Ruth Elynia Mabanglo, “Mula sa Altar nina Huli at Maria Clara: Imahen ng Babae sa Ilang Dramang Pilipino [From the Altar of (José Rizal characters) Huli and Maria Clara: Images of Women in Selected Philippine Dramas]”; and Soledad S. Reyes, “Women on Television.”

Readings in Philippine Cinema. Ed. Rafael Ma. Guerrero. Manila: Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, 1983.

Reconceptualizing the Digital Humanities in Asia: New Representations of Art, History and Culture. Ed. Kaby Wing-Sze Kung. Digital Culture and Humanities series no. 2 (Challenges and Developments in a Globalized Asia). Singapore: Springer Nature, 2020. Jose Gutierrez III, “Cinematic Contemplation Online: The Art and Philosophy of Life-world Series (2017).”

Relasyon [Affair], by Ricky Lee [as Ricardo Lee], Raquel Villavicencio, & Ishmael Bernal, screenplay of the film, dir. Ishmael Bernal (Regal Films, 1982). See Querida [Paramour]: An Anthology, ed. Caroline S. Hau, Isabelita O. Reyes, and Katrina Tuvera.

Remembering/Rethinking EDSA. Ed. JPaul S. Manzanilla and Caroline S. Hau. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2016. Joel David, “Grains & Flickers”; Patrick D. Flores, “A Cinema in Transition: Initial Incursions.”

Rethinking Third Cinema. Ed. Antony R. Guneratne and Wimal Dissanayake. New York: Routledge, 2003. Sumita S. Chakravarty’s “The Erotics of History: Gender and Transgression in the New Asian Cinema” closes with a discussion of Ishmael Bernal’s Himala [Miracle] (Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, 1982) as an example of the “relationship between eroticism and spirituality, [exploring] its implications for Filipino constructions of history and identity.”

Revaluation: Essays on Philippine Literature, Cinema and Popular Culture. By Bienvenido Lumbera. [Quezon City]: Index, 1984. Reprinted as Revaluation 1997.

Revaluation 1997: Essays on Philippine Literature, Cinema and Popular Culture. By Bienvenido Lumbera. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 1997. Reprint of 1984 edition with additional 22 articles and interview.

Re-Viewing Filipino Cinema. By Bienvenido Lumbera. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2011. Includes articles previously published in Revaluation (1984 & 1997).

Richard Gomez at ang Mito ng Pagkalalake, Sharon Cuneta at ang Perpetwal na Birhen at Iba Pang Sanaysay ukol sa Bida sa Pelikula Bilang Kultural na Texto [Richard Gomez and the Myth of Masculinity, Sharon Cuneta and the Perpetual Virgin and Other Essays about Movie Stars as Cultural Texts]. By Rolando B. Tolentino. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 2000.

Rizal [and] Bayaning 3rd World [3rd World Hero]: Dalawang Dulang Pampelikula [Two Screenplays]. By Clodualdo del Mundo Jr. and Mike de Leon. Manila: De La Salle University Press, 2000. Screenplays of Rizal, dir. Mike de Leon (unfinished); and Bayaning 3rd World, dir. Mike de Leon (Cinema Artists, 2000).

Robin Padilla: Bad Boy ng Showbiz [Bad Boy of Showbiz]. By Deo J. Fajardo. [Manila]: Concept Society, 1993. On the controversial lifestyle of a member of the respected Padilla clan.

Ronnie Poe and Other Silhouettes. By Nick Joaquin [as Quijano de Manila]. [Manila]: National Book Store, 1977. “Ronnie Poe” is the nickname of actor, director, and producer Fernando Poe Jr.

The Routledge Companion to Global Popular Culture. Ed. Toby Miller. New York: Routledge, 2015. Talitha Espiritu, “Performing Native Identities: Human Displays and Indigenous Activism in Marcos’s Philippines.”

The Routledge Encyclopedia of Films. Ed. Sarah Barrow, Sabine Haenni, and John White. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2014. José B. Capino, “Manila: In the Claws of Neon / Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag[, dir. Lino Brocka (Cinema Artists, 1975)].”

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Salome: A Filipino Filmscript by Ricardo Lee. By Ricky Lee [as Ricardo Lee]. Trans. Rofel G. Brion. Madison: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1993. Screenplay of Salome, dir. Laurice Guillen (Bancom Audiovision, 1981). Originally published untranslated in 1981.

Sampúng Taóng Sine [Ten Film Years]: Philippine Cinema 1990-1999. By the Young Critics Circle[’s Film Desk]. Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts, 2002.

Sa Puso ng Himala [In the Heart of Miracle]. By Ricky Lee. Quezon City: Philippine Writers Studio Foundation, 2012. Screenplay of Himala, dir. Ishmael Bernal (Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, 1982), production notes, interviews.

Screening Asian Americans. Ed. Peter X. Feng. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2002. Rolando B. Tolentino, “Identity and Difference in ‘Filipino/a American’ Media Arts.”

Ang Screenplay ng José Rizal [The Screenplay of José Rizal]. By Ricky Lee [as Ricardo Lee], Jun Lana, & Peter Ong. Makati City : Butz Jimenez and Jimmy Duavit for GMA Network, 1999. Screenplay of José Rizal, dir. Marilou Diaz-Abaya (GMA Films, 1998).

The Search for Weng Weng. By Andrew Leavold. Melbourne: LedaTape Organisation, 2017. On the filming of The Search for Weng Weng documentary, dir. Andrew Leavold (Death Rides a Red Horse & Turkeyshoot Productions, 2013).

Seksinema. By Boy Villasanta. San Pedro, Laguna: World Publishing, 2009.

Shake Rattle & Roll: Kahindik-hindik na Klasikong Katatakutan [Terrifying Horror Classics]. By Adam David, Carljoe Javier, Noel Pascual, and Mervin Malonzo. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2016. Based on Shake, Rattle & Roll II, dir. Peque Gallaga & Lore Reyes (Regal Films, 1990).

She’s the One: The Novel. By Pao Flores. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2018. Novelization of She’s the One, dir. Mae Czarina Cruz (ABS-CBN Film Productions & Star Cinema, 2013).

Short Film: Emergence of a New Philippine Cinema. By Nick Deocampo, ed. Alfred A. Yuson. Manila: Communication Foundation for Asia, 1985. Translated to Spanish as El Cortometraje (1986).

Showbiz Lengua: Chika and Chismax about Chuvachuchu [Showbiz Lingo: Small Talk and Gossip about Everything]. By Jose F. Lacaba. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 2010. A “compilation of 68 columns that [the author] wrote for YES! Magazine from 2003 to 2009” (Jose F. Lacaba, Ka Pete blog, November 2010).

Show Biz, Seriously: A Collection of Essays and Feature Articles. By Emmie G. Velarde. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 2011.

Showbiz Uncensored. By Jessie B. Garcia. [Iloilo City]: Moviola Publishing House, [1995].

Shuttling through Stage and Screen. By Rustica C. Carpio. Manila: Far Eastern University Publications, 2008. Veteran performer’s memoir.

Sid & Aya (Not A Love Story). By Irene Emma Villamor. Pasig City: VRJ Books, 2018. Screenplay of Sid & Aya (Not A Love Story), dir. Irene Emma Villamor (Viva Films & N2 Productions, 2018).

Sights of Contestation: Localism, Globalism and Cultural Production in Asia and the Pacific. Ed. Tam Kwok-kan, Wimal Dissanayake, and Terry Siu-han Yip. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 2002. Rolando B. Tolentino, “Subcontracting Imagination and Imageries of Bodies and Nations: The Philippines in Contemporary Transnational Asia Pacific Cinemas.”

Silver Book: A Movie Directory of the Philippines. [City & publisher unkn.], 1949.

Sinegabay: A Film Study Guide. Ed. Nick Deocampo. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 2008.

Sining at Lipunan [Art and Society]. By Cecilia S. de la Paz and Patrick D. Flores. Aklat Sanyata series. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Sentro ng Wikang Filipino, 2014. 2nd edition of Patrick D. Flores & Cecilia S. de la Paz’s Sining at Lipunan (1997).

Sining at Lipunan [Art and Society]. By Patrick D. Flores and Cecilia Sta. Maria de la Paz. Aklat Sanyata series. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Sentro ng Wikang Filipino, 1997. 2nd edition (2014) is listed as de la Paz & Flores.

Sining ng Sineng Filipino [Art of the Filipino Film]. By the Young Critics Circle. Aklat Sanyata series. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Sentro ng Wikang Filipino, 2009.

Sipat Kultura: Tungo sa Mapagpalayang Pagbabasa, Pag-aaral at Pagtuturo ng Panitikan [Culture View: Toward the Liberative Reading, Study and Teaching of Literature]. By Rolando B. Tolentino. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2007.

Sisikat Din Ako! [I’ll Also Get Famous!] Your Guide to Making Your Mark in Show Business. By Noel D. Ferrer. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2015. English version of Mag-Artista Ka!

Sites of Review: Critical Practice in Media. By Patrick D. Flores. San Pablo City: Oraciones, 1996.

Soltero [Bachelor]. By Bienvenido M. Noriega Jr., trans. Rolando S. Tinio. Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 1985. Screenplay of Soltero, dir. Pio de Castro III (Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, 1984).

Southeast Asian Independent Cinema. Ed. Tilman Baumgärtel. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2012. Tilman Baumgärtel, “The Downside of Digital: A German Media Critic Plays Devil’s Advocate.”

Spirituality and the Filipino Film. Ed. Clodualdo del Mundo Jr. Film and Faith series. Manila: Communication Foundation for Asia, 2010.

Star Studded. By Ricardo F. Lo. Makati City: Virtusio Books, 1995.

Stars in the Raw. By Jessie B. Garcia. Bacolod City: [publisher unkn.], 1982.

Stars in World Cinema: Screen Icons and Star Systems Across Cultures. Ed. Andrea Bandhauer and Michelle Royer. London: I.B. Tauris & Co., 2015. Bliss Cua Lim, “Sharon’s Noranian Turn: Stardom, Race, and Language in Philippine Cinema” discusses Sharon Cuneta’s successful replication of Nora Aunor’s early rags-to-riches-via-singing film persona.

Still Moving: The Film and Media Collections of the Museum of Modern Art. By Steve Higgins. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2006. Features Bona, dir. Lino Brocka (NV Productions, 1980).

The Subversive Impact: Sakada [Plantation Laborer] of Behn Cervantes (A Critique). By Simeon G. del Rosario. Quezon City: Simeon G. del Rosario, 1976. A study of Sakada, dir. Behn Cervantes (Sagisag Films, 1976).

Sulong Pilipina! Sulong Pilipinas! [Forward Filipina! Forward Philippines!] A Compilation of Filipino Women Centennial Awardees. Manila: Women Sector [of the] National Centennial Commission, 1999. Includes Liwayway A. Arceo, Fides S. Asensio, Nora Aunor, Daisy H. Avellana, Susana C. de Guzman, Narcisa B. de Leon, et al.

Sulyap sa Buhay ng mga Artistang Pilipino [Glimpse into the Life of Philippine Movie Actors]. By Julio F. Silverio. Manila: National Book Store, 1973.

Symposium on Gerardo de Leon. Ed. Ishizaka Kenji. Tokyo: Japan Foundation & [Association of Southeast Asian Nations] Culture Center, 1995.

Synthetic Culture and Development. By Renato Constantino. Quezon City: Foundation for Nationalist Studies, 1984. Only direct mention of cinema in the nationalist author’s texts (from Patrick D. Flores’s findings), aside from Constantino’s introduction (as publisher) to Bienvenido Lumbera’s Abot-Tanaw: Sulyap at Suri sa Nagbabagong Kultura at Lipunan (1987).

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Tales of Southeast Asia’s Jazz Age: Filipinos, Indonesians and Popular Culture, 1920-1936. By Peter Keppy. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press, 2019.

Tanging Yaman [A Change of Heart], the Film Book: Screenplay. By Shaira Mella-Salvador, Raymond Lee, and Laurice Guillen. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, ABS-CBN Consumer Products & Star Cinema, 2001. Screenplay of Tanging Yaman, dir. Laurice Guillen (Star Cinema, 2001).

Tanglaw Introduction to Film: An Outcomes-Based Text Manual in Film Aesthetics, Appreciation, Theory and Criticism for the Filipino Student. By Jaime Gutierrez-Ang. Manila: Mindshapers, 2014.

Si Tatang at mga Himala ng Ating Panahon: Koleksyon ng mga Akda [Old Man and the Miracles of Our Time: Collection of Writings]. By Ricky Lee [as Ricardo Lee]. Quezon City: Bagong Likha Publications, 1988. Screenplay of Himala, dir. Ishmael Bernal (Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, 1982), reviews of other films, and interview articles; reprinted in 2009.

Si Tatang at mga Himala ng Ating Panahon: Koleksyon ng mga Akda [Old Man and the Miracles of Our Time: Collection of Writings]. By Ricky Lee. Special edition. Quezon City: Writers Studio Foundation, 2009. Screenplay of Himala, dir. Ishmael Bernal (Experimental Cinema of the Philippines, 1982), reviews of other films, and interview articles; reprinted [as Ricardo Lee] from 1988.

Tatlong Dulang Pampelikula [Three Screenplays]. By Pedro C. Laurel Jr., Ramonfelipe A. Sarmiento, and Rody [as Rodolfo C.] Vera. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2003. Pedro C. Laurel Jr., “Ang Diego at Gabriela: Lagablab sa Ilocos [The (story of) Diego and Gabriela: Firestorm in Ilocos]”; Ramonfelipe A. Sarmiento, “Batingaw [Chime]”; Rody [as Rodolfo C.] Vera, “Senyor Pascual.”

Team Real: Your All-Access Pass into James Reid & Nadine Lustre’s World. Ed. Christianne Dizon. Pasig City: VRJ Books, 2017.

Things Fall Away: Philippine Historical Experience and the Makings of Globalization. By Neferti X.M Tadiar. Post-Contemporary Interventions series. Durham: Duke University Press, 2009. Mentions Nora Aunor and the career boost given by her performance in The Flor Contemplacion Story, dir. Joel Lamangan (Viva Films, 1995); discusses Sharon Cuneta’s stature as “arguably the most popular female movie star in the Philippines today”; and erroneously ascribes the “Second Golden Age” concept to an essay by Bienvenido Lumbera.

Third World Film Making and the West. By Roy Armes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

Through a Catholic Lens: Religious Perspectives of 19 Film Directors from Around the World. Ed. Peter Malone. Communication, Culture, and Religion Series. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2007. Nicasio Cruz, “The Legacy of Lino Brocka.”

Tio Ticong: Pelikula at Pulitika (Vicente Salumbides) [Uncle Ticong: Film and Politics (of) Vicente Salumbides]. By Boy Villasanta [as Julianito “Boy” Villasanta]. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 2002.

Towards Our Own Image: An Alternative Philippine Report on Women and Media. By Rina David and Pennie Azarcon de la Cruz. PWRC Pamphlet Series no. 1. [Manila]: Philippine Women’s Research Collective, 1985. Continued in Wilhelmina S. Orozco’s Towards Our Own Image.

Towards Our Own Image: An Alternative Philippine Report on Women and Media. By Wilhelmina S. Orozco. PWRC Pamphlet Series no. 2. [Manila]: Philippine Women’s Research Collective, 1985. Continued from Rina David and Pennie Azarcon de la Cruz’s Towards Our Own Image.

Tradisyon: Two Screenplays. By Jeanne Lim. Tubao Book Series of the Davao Writers Guild. Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts, 2009.

Translating Time: Cinema, the Fantastic, and Temporal Critique. By Bliss Cua Lim. Durham: Duke University Press, 2009. The book “interweaves scholarship on visuality with postcolonial historiography” (Duke University Press website) and discusses horror samples including Itim [The Rites of May], dir. Mike de Leon (Cinema Artists, 1976); Haplos [Caress], dir. Antonio Jose Perez (Mirick Films International, 1982); and Aswang [Viscera Sucker], dir. Peque Gallaga & Lore Reyes (Regal Films, 1992).

Transpacific Femininities: The Making of the Modern Filipina. By Denise Cruz. Durham: Duke University Press, 2012. “Transpacific Femininities, Multimedia Archives, and the Global Marketplace” discusses the figure of Imelda Marcos via David Byrne & Fatboy Slim’s musical Here Lies Love: A Song Cycle about Imelda Marcos & Estrella Cumpas (Nonesuch Records & Todomundo, 2010), and describes how the deluxe edition’s DVD makes use of images from “footage of late 1970s and early 1980s club scenes [and] news clips of violence and revolt during the martial law years,” as well as scenes from Iginuhit ng Tadhana [Determined by Destiny]: The Ferdinand E. Marcos Story, dir. Conrado Conde, Jose de Villa, & Mar S. Torres (777 Films & Sampaguita Pictures, 1965).

A Tribute to the Movie Queen Carmen Rosales: Ang Tangi Kong Pag-ibig [My Only Love]. By Manuel B. Fernandez and Ronald K. Constantino. Makati City: DLD Publishing, 2013.

Trip to Quiapo: Scriptwriting Manual. By Ricky Lee. Quezon City: Bagong Likha Publishing, 1998.

The Trouble with Nick [Joaquin] & Other Profiles. By Marra PL. Lanot. Philippine Writers series. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1999. Includes “That Gal Named Guy” (nickname of film actor Nora Aunor).

Ang True Story ni Guy, Ikalawang Aklat [The True Story of Guy, Volume Two]. By Baby K. Jimenez. Quezon City: Mass Media Promotions, 1983. On film actor Nora Aunor; in 2 vols.

Ang True Story ni Guy, Unang Aklat [The True Story of Guy, Volume One]. By Baby K. Jimenez. Quezon City: Mass Media Promotions, 1983. On film actor Nora Aunor; in 2 vols.

Tuklas Sining [Art Discovery]: Essays on the Philippine Arts. Ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson. Manila: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas, 1991.

Ang Tunay na Kasaysayan ni Nora Aunor, Superstar [The True History of Nora Aunor, Superstar]. By Rustum G. Quinton. Manila: RMD&A Publishing, 1972.

Twisted Flicks. By Jessica Zafra. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 2003.

Two Women as Specters of History: Lakambini [Noblewoman] and Indigo Child. By Rody Vera, ed. Ellen Ongkeko-Marfil. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2019. Screenplays of Lakambini, dir. Ellen Ongkeko-Marfil & Jeffrey Jeturian (unfinished); and Indigo Child, dir. Ellen Ongkeko-Marfil (Erasto Films, 2017).

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Unang Pagtingin sa Pelikulang Bakbakan: Tatlong Sanaysay [A First Glance at the Action Film: Three Essays]. By Zeus A. Salazar, Agustin Sotto, and Prospero Reyes Covar. Manila: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas, 1989.

Unforgettable. By Ash M. Malanum. Pasig City: VRJ Books, 2019. Novelization of Unforgettable, dirs. Perci Intalan & Jun Robles Lana (Viva Films & Ideafirst Co., 2019).

Union Catalog on Philippine Culture: Film. By the Cultural Center of the Philippines Library. CCP Library Research Guide Series no. 4. Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines Library, 1990.

The University of the Philippines Cultural Dictionary for Filipinos. By Thelma B. Kintanar “and Associates.” Quezon City & Pasig City: University of the Philippines Press & Anvil Publishing, 1996. “Communication and Mass Media.”

Mga Uod at Rosas [Caterpillars and Roses]. By Edgardo M. Reyes. Quezon City: C & E Publishing, 2010. Novelization of Mga Uod at Rosas, dir. Romy V. Suzara (Ian Film Productions, 1982).

The Urian Anthology 1970-1979. Ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson. Quezon City: Manuel L. Morato, 1983. Title page descriptor: “selected essays on tradition and innovation in the Filipino cinema of the 1970s by the Manunuri ng Pelikulang Pilipino: with about 550 photos and illustrations and a filmography of Philippine movies, 1970-1979.”

The Urian Anthology 1980-1989. Ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson. Manila: Antonio P. Tuviera, 2001. Includes filmography of 1980-89 Philippine film releases.

The Urian Anthology 1990-1999. Ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2010. Includes filmography of 1990-99 Philippine film releases.

The Urian Anthology 2000-2009: The Rise of the Philippine New Wave Indie Film. Ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2013. Includes filmography of 2000-10 Philippine film releases.

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Vaginal Economy. Ed. Rolando B. Tolentino. Special issue of Positions: Asia Critique, vol. 19, no. 2. Durham: Duke University Press, 2011. On “Cinema and Sexuality in the Post-Marcos, Post-Brocka Philippines” (guest editor’s introduction).

Vestiges of War: The Philippine-American War and the Aftermath of an Imperial Dream, 1899-1999. Ed. Angel Velasco Shaw and Luis H. Francia. New York: New York University Press, 2002. In conjunction with an exhibit titled Vestiges of War, “a project of Asian/Pacific/American Studies Program and Institute, New York University”; includes Nick Deocampo, “Imperialist Fictions: The Filipino in the Imperialist Imaginary.”

Vince & Kath series. By Queen Elly. 7 volumes, with vols. 6 & 7 titled Vince & Kath & James. Quezon City: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2016. Origin of and takeoff from Vince & Kath & James, dir. Theodore Boborol (Star Cinema, 2016). Originally a “textserye” (“social serye” on the book covers) appearing on Facebook, comprising exchanges among the characters, with the later books bearing individual titles: Book 2, Remember; Book 3, Promise; Book 4, Walang Titibag [None Can Destroy]; Book 5, Cheer and Var (Kath & Vince’s respective terms of endearment); Book 6, The Reunion; and Book 7, The Finale. (Per Roumella Nina L. Monge, in an email exchange, “books 5 & 6 were developed alongside the creation of the film.”)

Visualizing American Empire: Orientalism and Imperialism in the Philippines. By David Brody. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010. “Strange Travelogues: Charles Longfellow in the Orient” is about the son of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow; against his father’s wishes, he toured Asian countries, settled in the Philippines, transformed his appearance, and accumulated souvenirs & photographs (in effect, an archive) of himself and his environment.

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Wages of Cinema: Film in Philippine Perspective. By Joel David. Book edition. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1998. Revised & updated for a digital edition in 2014.

Wages of Cinema: Film in Philippine Perspective. By Joel David. Digital edition. Quezon City: Amauteurish Publishing, 2014. Revision & update of the 1998 book edition, available at the Ámauteurish! website.

Westernized Visual Representation of Jesus and the Construction of Religious Meanings: A Reception Analysis of The Jesus Film (1979) among the Mangyan Tribes. By Kwon Dong Hwan. Asbury Theological Seminary Series in Christian Revitalization Studies. Lexington, KY: Emeth Press, 2015. Study of The Jesus Film, dirs. John Krish & Peter Sykes (Inspirational Films & The Genesis Project, 1979).

White AF. By Carlo Cielo. [Pasig City]: Shonenbat Collective, 2019. A “loose account of the current ‘whiteness’ in Pinoy politics and culture” (product self-description); available at Shonenbat Collective on Facebook.

White Love and Other Events in Filipino History. By Vicente L. Rafael. American Encounters/Global Interactions series. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000. “Patronage, Pornography, and Youth: Ideology and Spectatorship during the Early Marcos Years.”

The Woman without a Face: The Life Story of Pilar Pilapil. By Pilar V. Pilapil. Pasig City: Pilar Pilapil Foundation, 2006. Autobiography of the beauty queen and actor.

Women and the Media in Asia: The Precarious Self. Ed. Kim Youna. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Bliss Cua Lim, “Fandom, Consumption and Collectivity in the Philippine New Cinema: Nora and the Noranians.”

Writing for Film. By Clodualdo del Mundo Jr. [Manila]: Communication Foundation for Asia, 1981.

Writing the Nation / Pag-akda ng Bansa. By Bienvenido Lumbera. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2000. Revision of several previously anthologized film articles.

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The Years of Permanent Midnight and Other Unedited Essays. By Epoy Deyto. 2018. Pasig City: TollidBilly & Shonenbat Collective, 2020. Available at the author’s Missing Codec blog; new issue includes an additional essay.

Youth and Media. Ed. Arminda Vallejo Santiago. Special issue of Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, vol. 8, no. 2. Quezon City: College of Mass Communication [of the] University of the Philippines, 2011. Jongsuk Ham, “Fluid Identities in the Structure of Cyberspace: A Comparison of Philippine and Korean Experiences”; Pamela Marie Cruz, “Ang Karanasan ng Nakaraan sa Gunitang Viswal: Pagsusuri sa mga Pelikulang Romantiko sa Baguio [The Past Experienced via Visual Recollection: Critique of Romantic Films (set in) Baguio].”

Yup, I Am that Girl. By Maine Mendoza. Pasig City: Summit Publishing Co., 2017. On the comedian, host, and viral internet personality.

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Wages of Cinema – By Way of an Epilogue

Commemorating Laura Samson
(September 1, 1953 – September 10, 2020)

Laura Samson, retired sociology professor at the Philippines’s national university, passed away recently. She was the first of my book publishers to leave, and ironically the youngest. Our association stretched way back to my undergraduate years during the military-dictatorship era, when she conducted a kick-ass writing workshop for the sub-rosa student writers’ collective I was in charge of. I made sure to take her popular-culture class later for the Philippine studies master’s degree I never completed, and congratulated her on her appointment to the University of the Philippines Press. She gave the most invaluable practical advice when I informed her that I was accepted to a US doctoral program despite the expiration of my Fulbright grant: finish everything, including the dissertation, before returning home, or else accept that you will never be able to complete the program.

It was during my last visit during my graduate-studies years when she insisted on an extended merienda at a café near the press. She asked me about the books I’d written, so I described the first and second and how one differed from the other (demonstrating some chronological development, or so I hoped). She responded by mentioning how she convinced O.D. Corpuz to allow her to publish his monumental study of Philippine economic history by working on an earlier manuscript of his, and then she came up with the clincher: she wanted a book out of me, during her term as UP Press director. Of course she recognized that my grad studies had to remain my priority, so we should look at existing materials that I already had on hand – term papers, reports, notes, and the like.

I mentioned the classes I took (I was ABD by then) and the papers I wrote for each one, as she scribbled on a piece of paper. After my recollection, she presented me with a structure, essentially a ready-made table of contents. I forget the exact proposal she prepared, but I was astonished: this was the way our grad-school advisers were telling us to get our dissertations ready with minimal suffering, by writing papers that could serve as chapters. The first of four sections that she suggested focused on formalist arguments, but I wound up jettisoning some papers here (as well as in the other sections) and incorporating the others in the other three sections – specificities, subjectivities, and sexualities.

This was how I came up with Wages of Cinema, a book for which I hold much ambivalence. I told her why I thought it suffered several lacks and lapses, but she brought up a crucial insight: no book (and this includes any thesis and dissertation) will ever be satisfactory enough, and the ratio of the author’s discontent will be in direct proportion to its ambition. Through the years, with several titles preceding and succeeding it, WoC remains the book I have the most complaints about, even though I’ve been able to draw forth several journal articles, my dissertation, and my first book monograph from it. But I’ve also learned to keep Laura’s admonition in mind: like having an unruly brood of siblings or a classroom of restless students, the most gifted will invariably cause the most headaches.

What unusual mentors I’ve had, and what an exceptional one Laura was.

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Á!


Memoirs & Bios

My original intent was to draft an article that provided a report on the state-of-the-writing of this area in Philippine film-book publication. I learned about a much-awaited completed draft, by a practitioner who had passed away, that might take a while to process for publication, then learned about a couple of others being finished, plus plans for several more. At this rate, it would take too long before I could write on what has turned out to be the largest category of books on Philippine cinema.

This was when I opted to fall back on a less-than-satisfactory critical format, the listicle. Incapable of providing a macro view, true, but then it’s updatable. I’d already raised some points in “Authoring Auteurs,” the bibliographical essay I wrote, but these are worth repeating for the sake of the present posting: the country’s very first non-institutional film book, Vicente Salumbides’s Motion Pictures in the Philippines (Manila: V.S., 1952), would have been a full-blown memoir if it did not have to assume the unwieldy challenges of representing an industry and narrating a history; and the impetus for active film-book publication that started roughly with the declaration of martial law by then-President Ferdinand E. Marcos covered the same individual, Nora Aunor, as did a number of other film books (and film-book chapters) that emerged afterward. I didn’t mind expanding my coverage to include intellectual bios, if any should come along, as well as investigative or even muckraking reports, if these prove to be productive of critical insight. What I had to exclude were the several essentially biographical encyclopedias, since these would comprise listicles (like, but not like, this post) that were premised on a predetermined Who’s Who-style of maximal appeal with minimal analytics. Collections that comprise more than paragraph-length entries, on the other hand, are included, as they deserve to be.

All blog entries, as anyone with a Facebook account can attest, can be subjected to endless tinkering – corrections, revisions, even outright deletions. Some foreground this changeable condition less than others, and this post resembles the front page of Ámauteurish! in being updated whenever and wherever I manage to go over a new entry. The books will be alphabetically ordered by their respective authors’ family names, but will also be tagged with the date of uploading. These may best be regarded as extended annotations rather than reviews, and at some future point an index of entries might become necessary and will be incorporated in this introduction.

Ishmael Bernal, Jorge Arago, & Angela Stuart Santiago, Pro Bernal Anti Bio (Manila: ABS-CBN Publishing, 2017), 394+x.

Jessica Zafra once headlined that this was “the best Filipino film book of the year, maybe of all time,” but that assertion raises questions of comparative criteria (in a field where I’ve got a few entries myself, but I think my reservation’s valid nevertheless, even outside of my books’ areas). Where Pro Bernal Anti Bio can definitely win is in the Pinas bio category: controversially, it’s the best in its own way. It swings a few of these achievements by being sufficiently nothing and everything in the same instance: an autobio that wasn’t finished by its subject, a bio that also wasn’t finished by its author, a memoir that draws in voices and perspectives from everyone else, finished after the autobio and bio writers passed away. Any Filipino film observer would know Ishmael Bernal, and a better-informed one would know Jorge Arago, but it’s Angela Stuart Santiago who accomplishes what the previous authors probably only instinctively envisioned when they went about writing their entries: a literary equivalent of Bernal’s specialization, the multicharacter movie. Part of the reason it succeeds is because of a paradox: Ishma may have turned into a leftist ideologue toward the end of his life, but he remained irrepressible and transgressive, and would probably have abandoned vulgar Marxism if he had hung around longer, claiming that that phase of his life was just for the lulz.

PBAB could get by on Bernal & co.’s intelligence and wit alone, but the instinctive, nearly experimental structure commands closer scrutiny. Inevitably, several details conflict among themselves and/or with the historical record, despite Stuart-Santiago’s alert interventions. But this is the exception to the flawed-data project: the typical non-fiction text can be critiqued on its author’s inadequate analysis, with its errors indicating careless or lazy handling. In this instance, these troubles assume minor proportion in relation to the impressive achievement of recapturing a life lived to the hilt, the mind in constant overdrive, the heart always anxious to keep up. I had never pulled myself away from a Philippine book so many times, in order to slow down the process of completing it. Anyone who wants to learn about celebrity and/or queer culture in the Philippines ought to make this book her first stop. [July 30, 2020]

Bibsy M. Carballo, Filipino Directors Up Close: The Golden Ages of Philippine Cinema, 1950-2010 (Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, 2010), 206+xvi.

Bibsy Carballo stood apart as more than the public-relations practitioner that the public knew. She handled top-flight talents, line-produced prestige film projects, hobnobbed with bohemians, and had the ability to write like a journalism graduate and professor, both of which she was. One of the pleasant surprises of Filipino Directors Up Close derives from her account of its writing process. The articles were written purposefully for compilation in this volume, rather than for various publications at opportune periods, and though she observed the canonical practice of starting with winners of the Order of the National Artist, she readily and good-naturedly included filmmakers who were breaking ground in merging quality and commerce, shining a light, for example, on what she called Star Cinema’s “Three Marias” (Olive Lamasan, Rory Quintos, and Cathy Garcia-Molina, misnamed Cathy Molina Garcia in the table of contents and Cathy Grace Molina in a caption). Although the articles draw from standard references and even take care to specify bibliographic information, they never fall back on standard or predictable narratives, mainly because Carballo had the ability to identify telling details or raise crucial questions. She claimed to have enough leftover material for a second volume, and that is the tragedy that attends this publication: she could have persisted in an impressively creative and productive career if a terminal illness did not cut her life short. [August 2, 2020]

Nestor de Guzman (ed.), Si Nora Aunor sa mga Noranian: Mga Paggunita at Pagtatapat [Nora Aunor to the Noranians: Remembrances and Confessions] (Quezon City: Milflores Publishing, 2005), 238+viii.

You may think that a collection of testimonials about someone who has been written about, more than anyone else, in local publications and not just film books, could constitute star overload. Yet these are (necessarily) fans and appreciators writing at the point when their object of adulation had grown up, and when they also underwent their own process of maturation. Nestor de Guzman – who put together a historical first for Philippine pop culture, the Noraniana [memorabilia] Collection at the public library in Iriga City, Camarines Sur (Nora Aunor’s hometown) – zeroed in on the star’s most articulate and devoted admirers. Wilfredo O. Pascual Jr., the first essayist to win first prize in the Don Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards for Literature for his Noranian appreciation, provides his own awakening to her pervasive cultural presence; a number of academics and professionals, film and literary critics, even a drag queen whose profession is premised on mimicking Aunor: all stand up to be counted. Most impressively, for Aunor’s star record, are fans who became famous precisely for being her fans, notably the late Armando “Mandy” Diaz Jr. True to the Philippines’s own historical exigencies, many of the contributors are now based in foreign countries, and nearly all of them are identified according to their membership in one or the other Aunor fan club. All of course are effusive about their particular experience of Noramania, so the best approach is to keep the book on a shelf and dip into it a few articles at a time, preferably after going over a sampling of the subject-artiste’s output. [July 30, 2020]

Jerry B. Grácio, Bagay Tayo [We’re Compatible] (Pasay City: Visprint, 2018), 274+vi.

Those who were fortunate enough to track Jerry B. Grácio’s now-deleted Facebook posts would have had an inkling of what Bagay Tayo would have been about: an account of his life with his husband Raymond Reña, whom he nicknamed Pitbull. Yet BT is still so much more than its already-rewarding hyper-romantic queerness portends. Some of these details may spoil your discovery, so we’ll leave it at that for now. Grácio was approaching his peak as scriptwriter when he set down his historia de amor (cowriting in the same period the script of Khavn’s Balangiga: Howling Wilderness), so his navigation of the class and culture differences between him and Pitbull would not be too surprising. What makes BT extra-special is the manner in which he partakes of Pitbull’s way of thinking, seemingly to the point where he can take the place of his partner entirely, if that kind of arrangement became necessary. Grácio deactivated his social-media account at the point when Pitbull’s spell in prison was about to end (spoiler, I know, but not if you were in his FB circle), and any further questions you may have are dealt with in the text, in the most painfully honest way you can imagine. BT’s actually romantic only to the extent that Grácio allows it to be, and to ensure that you don’t get too much of a wonderful thing, he made sure to come up with what appears to be a miniaturized version of the book: Hindi Bagay [Incompatible], which is actually a collection of poems about love, including the end of it. [July 30, 2020]

Mario A. Hernando (ed.), Lino Brocka: The Artist and His Times (Manila: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas, 1993), 312+viii.

The Philippines’s most internationally renowned filmmaker was a combative pro-democracy activist when he was alive, with his output about to explore a set of formal and social-semiotic innovations when he unexpectedly died due to a vehicular accident. He always had a conflicted relationship with government institutions and film critics, so a government volume handled by one of his allies (and occasional nemesis) had to be primarily hagiographic or be accused of grinding an ax or two. For that reason, the more extensive articles work out better than the reviews and publicity interviews, and the material more closely approximates Lino Brocka’s constantly (if slowly) shifting sensibility the closer it was written in the book’s present time. Two contributions in particular complement each other historically and provide novel revelations: Johven Velasco’s “Brocka’s Theater: Something from the Heart” points out where Brocka actually started out as rightist in both gender- and political-activist terms, with the Philippine Educational Theater Association enduring his virulence. Jo-Ann Maglipon’s “The Brocka Battles” picks up on the director’s realization that the Communist left had the most prepared program and personnel in confronting the dictatorship of Ferdinand E. Marcos, although he also started considering anarchy as a more appropriate approach to his style of radicalism after Marcos’s ouster. Always, one has to exercise caution in taking Brocka at his word: to the end, he remained defensive about his past missteps, notably in his capitulations to the left-leaning literati’s sexism, homophobia, and anti-Asian racism. His output indicated that he was sensitive to oppressed people’s objections and took cognizance even if he would occasionally fall short, so the volume works best as a dialogical sampling of Brocka, his colleagues, and his body of work. [July 30, 2020]

Baby K. Jimenez, Ang True Story ni Guy, Unang Aklat [The True Story of Guy, Volume One] and Ang True Story ni Guy, Ikalawang Aklat [The True Story of Guy, Volume Two] (Quezon City: Mass Media Promotions, 1983), 208+nulla and 296+nulla resp.

Until Ishmael Bernal et al.’s Pro Bernal Anti Bio came along, this was the definitive entry of its type. Written in then-unusual Taglish, complemented by dozens of snapshots, by a confidant of someone who has actually been the most successful multimedia star in Philippine history, at the point when she became the country’s premiere film performer. It is no fault of Baby K. Jimenez that at least a third volume seems to be missing, since Nora Aunor (the “Guy” in the title) ventured even further, and continues staking new ground well into her 60s. Fortunately BKJ herself is updating her text and promises anyone who asks that it will be appearing within her and Guy’s lifetime. Just for context, Ang True Story ni Guy arrived after a few other books on Aunor jump-started the so-far still-flourishing trend in Pinas film book publication, and was followed by a few other books and book chapters, all no longer primarily biographical. But if you still can’t get enough Guy in your life, she recently authorized another author, Ricardo Lee, to cover the areas that ATSG 1&2 avoided: in a word, the scandals, the same elements that would have defeated most of us but what an artistic genius (Bernal’s description of her) knew how to work into her craft. We still haven’t heard the last of her – and she’s still around, if you can imagine the mythological possibilities. [July 30, 2020]

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Mother Pinas, Onscreen

From the Internet Movie Database.

Out of Anita Linda’s several bouts of mixed fortunes, the fact that she survived into the internet era should count as her so-far final stroke of good luck. Tributes, recollections, even film excerpts regarding her excellence as performer flooded Pinas social media on the day she died, two days before Independence Day 2020 – a time when people were seeking fitting symbols of the nation to honor.

Linda would of course be the perfect embodiment. Dying in the early morning – or, in keeping with her professional approach, sleeping her last – she seemingly made sure that no schedule that required her for the day would be disrupted by any untoward drama in real life. Anything dramatic, for her, should be allowed to emerge only in her performances.

Anyone should be able to pick up the basic details by now, and a whole lot more might be added to her bio once historians of pop culture have finished combing through the many anecdotes her co-workers have been posting about her. Born in 1924 to an American father and Ilongga mother, Alice Lake was discovered while watching a stage show by Lamberto V. Avellana, and given her screen name by Avellana’s wife, the former Daisy Hontiveros.[1] She expressed reluctance because of her difficulty with Tagalog, but Avellana was insistent and cast her in a non-speaking stage part.

Sisa publicity pic. [From Video 48]

World War II delayed the screening of her first film, Avellana’s Tiya Juana [Aunt Juana] (1943), for LVN Pictures, Avellana’s home studio. Her next projects, however, came out four years later (because of the wartime suspension of production), for Premiere Productions: three films in 1947, five in 1948, seven in 1949. Premiere was where Gerardo de Leon worked, and Linda may have impressed him enough to cast her in a period project, Sisa, based on the tragic figure in Jose Rizal’s 1887 novel Noli Me Tangere [Touch Me Not], who in turn was partly based on the racist persecution of the hero’s Chinay mother by Spanish authorities.[2] Most of the other evidence of Linda’s evolution as film actor may be impossible to source by now, since most of the Premiere holdings were burned in one of those warehouse fires that kept razing down combustible celluloid stock.

An added misfortune was political in nature. Linda, along with Patria Plata, supported a crewpersons’ strike at her home studio, led by soundperson Casimiro Padilla. The owners decided to shut down the production company, leaving the strikers stranded, the actresses included. (Based on their production credits, this would have occurred around the mid-1950s.)[3] During this period, the studio system was also faltering from its top-heavy vertical integration and was facing challenges from more successful stars, who had enough of their own money to start producing their own films. Once more, this highly commercial catch-as-catch-can approach to production did not guarantee that many of the titles made by practitioners during that period could be preserved for posterity.

Fortunately for Linda’s most celebrated film role, Lino Brocka spearheaded a recovery program with a team whose members hunted down Gerry de Leon films from all over the country, starting with the most logical final destinations – provincial theaters where celluloid prints would usually be left to deteriorate or be cannibalized as caps and horns for Christmas and New Year merriment. The recovery of Sisa (1951) bowled over a new generation of observers, who had been earlier transfixed by a more recent performance, Lolita Rodriguez’s in Lino Brocka’s own Tinimbang Ka Ngunit Kulang [Weighed But Found Wanting] (1974).

In Emmanuel Quindo Palo’s Sta. Niña (2012), with Coco Martin. [Cinemalaya & CCM Creatives]

Linda in Sisa deservedly took top spot as Pinas cinema’s most outstanding film performance, the gold standard against which a much younger aspirant, Nora Aunor, was subsequently to measure herself. To say that Aunor was eventually able to surpass her is no slight on Linda’s achievement: a new filmmaking generation brought with it more openness and artistic daring, along with Aunor’s own considerable resources as top multimedia star of her generation. Nevertheless Linda persisted and even managed to occasionally headline her own film projects, possibly the oldest Filipino actor to ever achieve the feat. The two millennial-era films where she appears as lead actress, Adolfo Borinaga Alix Jr.’s Adela (2008) and Brillante Ma. Mendoza’s Lola [Grandmother] (2009), deploy the benevolence and humility that Linda became known for among her colleagues. It were as if the directors scouted for unusual and inaccessible urban settings, set Linda down in them, and instructed her to be her truest self. Her final film, Alix’s Circa (2019), also features her in lead capacity – a fitting end to a career with several highs but also too many lows.

This may also have been a consequence of iconicity, a higher realm than stardom: people become aptly reverential, sometimes to a fault. One of the unforgettable anecdotes about Linda on the set of Sisa was of de Leon adjusting her delivery by saying, “Anita, konting libog pa [more libido please].” Cineastes may have delighted in this narrative by imagining how much greater the director was than his performer, but Linda’s output throughout and beyond the Marcos regime (regarded as the Second Golden Age of Philippine cinema) belies this auteur-snobbish interpretation. Scroll through the tribute excerpts posted by, as an example, Facebook’s Cristina Gaston (a pseudonym adopted from an Alma Moreno character): Ishmael Bernal, Maryo J. de los Reyes, Elwood Perez, and Joey Gosiengfiao were never content to just depict her as mother to the star(s) of their projects. She had to be kooky, eccentric, decadent, flighty, bitchy, alcoholic, unfaithful, and/or ambitious.

The working-class assassin in Gumapang Ka sa Lusak (1990). [Viva Films]

These characterizations did not arise out of disrespect. On the contrary, they came from a recognition that Linda was always game for unusual challenges, and seemed grateful to make use of comic devices for a change. We’ve left out Lino Brocka, with whom Linda was most associated with sanctimonious-motherly roles. Yet even in this territory, we find departures from her later mater-dolorosa persona. In Jaguar (1979), she scolds her son for his social-climbing delusions but shields him later from pursuing police agents and helps him escape when they get near; in Gumapang Ka sa Lusak [Dirty Affair] (1990), nominatively a sequel to Jaguar, she reprises the role played by Carlito Dimailig in real life, assassinating the movie’s Imelda Marcos figure with a bolo (though as in real life, the person gets killed by security personnel).

In the “Hello, Soldier” segment of Tatlo, Dalawa, Isa [Three, Two, One] (1974), she transforms from a devoted mother dutifully preparing to surrender her daughter to the American who fathered her and now wants to adopt her, to a drunk-off-her-ass slum dweller re-enacting the moment she, as a then-younger bargirl, espied and seduced the foreigner she would fall for and be abandoned by. Brocka documents the sequence from the moment she wakes up from her intoxication, through her panic at the thought of being left alone and wandering the streets, regretful at how she was unable to say a proper farewell, without a single line of dialogue: Linda pursues and finishes the tale magnificently, by the use of her face and nothing else.[4]

The wordless closure of the “Hello, Soldier” episode of Tatlo, Dalawa, Isa (1974).

In two films by Mario O’Hara, we find definitive formal proof of Linda’s capabilities. In Bakit Bughaw ang Langit? [Why Is the Sky Blue?] (1981), she executes extended melodramatic arguments with Nora Aunor and proves to be the only actor capable of matching the country’s most gifted performer, line by spiteful line. In Babae sa Bubungang Lata [Woman on a Tin Roof] (1998), she uses the disadvantages of representing a lost past in cinema, narrating her tale rather than enacting it, providing embarrassingly manipulative final-act revelations, and winds up claiming equal-ensemble status as the younger performers via the force of her haunted slow-burn delivery.

It would therefore be unsurprising to learn that when Elwood Perez decided to initiate an autobiographical film trilogy as his final artistic statement, Anita Linda heralded the first installment, Otso [Eight] (2013). Her presence infuses the entire film, even though she appears only in the final sequence – as Alice Lake, playing a once-famous actress known as Anita Linda, now the owner of a residential building where an aspiring artist learns about life, love, and desire, realizing to his amazement that his present has become possible because of what the lady at the top floor, overlooking events in her property, underwent in the past.[5] This may be the ultimate way to remember Linda: a woman who dedicated her life so completely to her craft that it expectedly defined her, but also unexpectedly and even more profoundly became defined by her.

Alice Lake in Otso (2013). [Film Development Council of the Philippines & Earth Moving Pictures]

Notes

First published June 13, 2020, as “Remembering Anita Linda: She Devoted Her Life So Completely to Her Craft that It Defined Her,” in ABS-CBN News Channel. The author acknowledges the solicitation and assistance of Jerome Gomez, as well as anecdotes provided by the late Vic Delotavo.

[1] Most reports ascribe the source of Linda’s screen name to Avellana, but their granddaughter Ina Avellana Cosio provided the clarification – that it was Daisy rather than Lamberto who suggested the name – in her comment on my Facebook post of June 10, 2020.

[2] I recall this staggering and essential revelation on why a member of the landed gentry was made to march from her home to the municipal jail from one of the first article publications of Caroline S. Hau, whose title I do not recall but which I read for certain in the 1990s. In a recent exchange, she mentioned that her account was cut from the final version of The Chinese Question: Ethnicity, Nation, and Region in and Beyond the Philippines (Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2014). In her typically generous manner, she maintained that “the Sisa-Alonso link is orthodox in the scholarship on Rizal, and the authorities really made an example of her, not caring if she was herself of relatively high social standing in the town, whether Chinese mestizoness or not, so there’s no need to cite anything I wrote” (“Re: Query re Teodora Alonso Realonda,” received by the author, July 25, 2020) – all the more reason for a non-Rizal scholar like me to insist on acknowledging her continuing contribution to this field of study.

[3] This information first came out in the citation for Anita Linda’s award for outstanding achievement, given by the Filipino Film Critics Circle (of which I was a member then). The citation was published in the group’s first decadal collection and reprinted in the second; see “Anita Linda,” in The Urian Anthology 1970-1979 (Quezon City: Manuel L. Morato, 1983), pp. 420-21, taglined Jun Cruz Reyes, trans. Nicanor G. Tiongson. After 1953, Patria Plata stopped working altogether at Premiere, while Anita Linda had occasional projects, although not as actively as before. My provisional speculation is that she may have been emboldened by winning the first industry-wide award for an actress in Sisa. Her people skills may be seen in her returning for the occasional Premiere project, as well as for production companies set up by her colleagues in the studio, specifically Gerry de Leon and Larry Santiago. In fact, by freelancing not just for rival studios but also for independent outfits, she may have been the first star who demonstrated the instability and morally questionable logic behind the oligopoly of the Big Three. One of her early “indie” projects anticipated the wild and woolly years of the post-studio 1960s: Nardo Vercudia’s Basagulera [Troublemaker] (1954), for Everlasting Pictures.

[4] A precursor of how her soon-to-be-rediscovered performance in Sisa was about to recapture the top spot in local film appreciators’ regard was during the televised awards ceremonies of the 1974 Filipino Academy of Movie Arts and Sciences: while Lolita Rodriguez in Lino Brocka’s Tinimbang Ka Ngunit Kulang affirmed her stature as an outstanding female performer by winning best actress, it was Linda’s far shorter role, misclassified as supporting actress, in one of three episodes in Tatlo, Dalawa, Isa, that presenters kept raving over.

[5] A wistfully poetic full circle has been inscribed with Otso as well, when we consider that Elwood Perez’s first film, the now-lost Blue Boy (1970), starred Fred Cortes Jr., Linda’s son by Fred Cortes, with whom she had starred in her first film, Tiya Juana. She put her film career on hold, for the last time, when she opted to live with Cortes in the US, but returned after their union ended. Cortes died in 1966.

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Empiricals; or the Bearable Heaviness of Having-Been

The following chart is based on a more comprehensive (nearly half a century!) file of my output than what I posted on the Chronologically Arranged Listing of Publications page. That one contains around 350 entries (as of May 2020) while this one counts over 400 in all. [Please click on the image for enlargement.]

The discrepancies begin with a different start year, owing to the inclusion of articles I’d delisted in the blog version as juvenilia. One difficulty in the method is that it counts any single publication as one. This could range from short reports to books. The 1990s drought, for example, owes to the fact that I’d been writing academic papers during graduate school – many of which got compiled in an encyclopedia as well as in books of mine, accounting for two years’ sudden spikes – alongside my doctoral dissertation (one final spike, in 2017, stemmed from the printing of a second edition of the aforementioned encyclopedia). I noticed as well that the years when I needed to adjust to non-writing jobs tended, logically enough, to impinge on my productivity, requiring a few couple of years for me to bounce back.

What struck me about the chart was the apparent high yield during the late 1980s, exceeding my freelance period of 1980-81. From personal experience, however, it felt like I was doing more writing recently than I ever had before – and again, it all boiled down to the question of the nature of output. With my tenured status in a more supportive non-Philippine educational institution, I was able to devote more time to writing, but these focused on academic articles and an occasional book volume.

The surest way of determining productivity would be by performing a word count of each entry and tabulating word output per year. That would of course require the kind of dedication to positivist projects that I can no longer muster. A less difficult means would be to count number of pages instead – a predicament for the articles whose copies I no longer possess, and a challenge that requires patience and obsession and time to spare (none of which I have enough of right now). As of this writing (December 2018), the last two years in the chart still have to transpire, so some of the items being counted are finished works awaiting publication, or planned output that I have announced. I imagine (though I don’t hope) that I might be writing to my end of days, so the definitive version of this study, assuming it’s worth completing, may just have to be undertaken by others.

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Chronologically Arranged Listing of Publications

Warning: you might find this (incomplete but still-growing) section too extensive for casual browsing.

A number of entries may appear bloated because of my insistence in tracking where they may have been reprinted; similarly, the reprints would be extended by the acknowledgments of original publication. I do not hold copies any longer of everything listed here. The claim I can make, however, is that each entry existed in a legally definable published format (including on the internet) that I once laid eyes on, if not actually possessed, except for a number of reviews whose non-publication arose from the editor’s backward orientation or the periodical’s inability to come out. When I realized that I would have to leave most of my collected materials behind to commence graduate studies abroad, I endeavored to list everything I had – a wise decision, since nearly the entirety of my possessions were either pilfered or damaged by the time I returned. My work as university faculty similarly inculcated in me the discipline of summarizing my output every yearend.

Pointedly missing from this list are three types of mimeographed material, some of which I was able to jot down, as well as news items generated in my capacity as journalism intern or reporter. The latter were contractually anonymized although my initials started appearing as taglines in some of the later published material; but the requirement of writing up to four reports a day, none of which were guaranteed to see print unless a desk editor happened to favor them, resonates in the most disagreeable way with me. Of the mimeo publications, one was legitimate but literally juvenile: my stint as editor-in-chief of the low-end student paper of my public elementary school (during the time when such institutions were markedly superior to private schools, which I had also attended). The other two types, where I first made use of pseudonyms, were juvenile in other senses: college-era fundamentalist-Christian newsletters and orthodox-Marxist underground propaganda, both types of which are, for better or worse, still around, and not much different from each other, if I may speak from experience.

To jump to half-decade marks, please click here for: 1980; 1985; 1990; 1995; 2000; 2005; 2010; 2015. To find an entry’s link in the blog, enter the title in the Search box in the footer (for the website version). Or track the source of the article using these means of identification: book titles (including anthologies and conference proceedings) in Books; journal and non-journal titles in Articles; non-journal periodicals after 2016 and independent statements in Remarks; and all other unclassifiable texts in Extras. If you’re searching for any number of commentaries on film, book, or stage titles, I recommend you look them up in Reviews instead, or in Auteurs & Authors if you prefer to search according to artist. For a tentative evaluation of these listings as data entries, I prepared a page titled Empiricals.

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1974

David, Jose Hernani S. “Facing the Drug Abuse Problem.” “Piece of Mind” column. Ang Aninag (July-September 1974): 12.

———. “Of Population Boom and Errata.” “Deliberations” column. Ang Aninag (October-December 1974): 3.

———. “Eva Fernandez.” “Camera On” feature. Ang Aninag (October-December 1974): 5.

———. “Animal Farm: A Fairy Story by George Orwell.” Book review. Ang Aninag. (October-December 1974): 6.

———. “Lidy Nacpil.” “Camera On” feature. Ang Aninag (Christmas 1974): 3.

———. “But for the Lovers by Wilfrido Nolledo” and “Magister Ludi (The Glass Bead Game) by Hermann Hesse, translated by Richard and Clara Winston.” Book reviews. Ang Aninag (October-December 1974): 4.

1975

David, Jose Hernani S. “Trivia.” “Deliberations” column. Ang Aninag (January-February 1975): 3.

1978

David, Joel. “A New Twist to an Old Game.” “Common People” section. Who? [weekly magazine] (May 20, 1978): 6-7.

David, J. Hernani S. “The Student Regent: Work to Do.” “Winning Editorials (Topic: ‘Student Regent, Tuition Fee Hike and Minimum Wage’)” feature. Philippine Collegian [University of the Philippines official weekly student newspaper] (June 16, 1978): 3.

———. “Changes We’d Like to See.” “Innovations” column, “based on the editor’s entry to the layout phase of this year’s editorial exams.” Philippine Collegian (June 16, 1978): 8, 6.

———. “Today’s Press Systems: Four Tunes Western Theorists Sing.” Book review of Four Theories of the Press by Fred S. Siebert, Theodore Peterson, and Wilbur Schramm. Philippine Collegian (June 23, 1978): 3, 6.

———. “Pressed Freedom.” Editorial. Philippine Collegian (June 23, 1978): 8.

———. “Question Time.” “Tugon” column. Philippine Collegian (July 12, 1978): 8.

———. “The Fire Cure.” “Tugon” column. Philippine Collegian (July 20, 1978): 8.

———. “Birds of Omen.” Film review of Pagputi ng Uwak, Pag-itim ng Tagak dir. Celso Ad. Castillo. Philippine Collegian (July 26, 1978): 3, 6. Anthologized in The Urian Anthology 1970-1979, ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson (Manila: Morato, 1983) 268-71.

———. “A Semestral Carol.” “Tugon” column. Philippine Collegian (August 9, 1978): 8.

———. “Low Flight.” “Tugon” column. Philippine Collegian (September 8, 1978): 8.

———. “Youths Stage September 21 Rally.” Interpretive report. Campus Journal [University of the Philippines Institute of Mass Communication semestral laboratory newspaper] (October 2, 1978): 1, 6.

———. “A Clockwork Crimson.” “Tugon” column. Philippine Collegian (October 4, 1978): 12, 10.

———. “Behind Bicutan.” “Tugon” column. Philippine Collegian (November 16, 1978): 8.

1979

David, J. Hernani S. “When Enough is Enough.” “Tugon” column. Philippine Collegian (January 25, 1979): 8.

———. “The Provisional Directorate of the Diliman Commune, Feb. 1-9, 1971: 9 Days that Shook the Campus.” Feature article. Philippine Collegian (February 2, 1979): 7. Revised and published in The Review (February 1981): 6-11.

———. “NPC Under Water.” “Tugon” column. Philippine Collegian (February 2, 1979): 12.

———. “Oil Mighty.” “Tugon” column. Philippine Collegian (February 22, 1979): 8.

———. “Winning Editorials: Student Participation in University Affairs.” Philippine Collegian (March 2, 1979): 7.

———. “Oil Mighty II.” “Tugon” column. Philippine Collegian (April 20, 1979): 4.

David, Jose Hernani Segovia. “The Events in the Diliman Campus on February 1-9, 1971: A Historical Study.” Undergraduate thesis for B.A. Journalism. Bridget Zubiri, adviser. University of the Philippines, April 1979.

David, Joel. “Focus on the BPI Economic Garden.” Feature article. Greenfields 9.11 (November 1979): 40-45; with sidebar “The Plant Propagators,” 44-45.

David, Jose Hernani S., and Miguel Y. Puzon. “Introducing Fiberglass Fishing Boats in the Philippines.” “Research Features” section. Fisheries Today [Fishery Industry Development Council quarterly magazine] (November 4, 1979): 49-50.

David, Jose Hernani S. “Valiant Try.” Film review of Aliw, dir. Ishmael Bernal. Who (submitted November 1979). Anthologized in The National Pastime: Contemporary Philippine Cinema (Pasig City: Anvil, 1990).

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1980

David, Jose Hernani S. “Malou Mangahas: Child of the Seventies.” “Campus” feature. Who [Who? renamed] (January 5, 1980): 32-33, 35.

———. “Rumpus at the International School.” “Campus” feature. Who (January 19, 1980): 1, 7. Original published as “At the International School: A Striking Story,” Philippine Collegian (January 23, 1980): 1, 7.

David, Joel. “A Festival to Forget.” “The Arts” feature, omnibus film review of 1979 Metro Manila Film Festival entries. Who (January 19, 1980): 40, 42.

David, Jose Hernani S. “At the International School: A Striking Story.” Interpretive report. Philippine Collegian (January 23, 1980): 1, 7.

———. “The World According to Aguila.” “Entertainment” feature, film review of Aguila, dir. Eddie Romero. Who (February 2, 1980): 44, 46. Anthologized in The National Pastime: Contemporary Philippine Cinema (Pasig City: Anvil, 1990) 20-23 and in The Urian Anthology 1980-1989, ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson (Quezon City: Tuviera, 2001) 142-45.

———. “A Clockwork Yellow.” “The Arts” feature, film review of The China Syndrome, dir. James Bridges. Who (February 22, 1980): 24-25, 42.

———. “The Night the Critics Gave Out Their Awards.” Interpretive report. Philippines Daily Express (March 4, 1980): 20-21.

———. “Why Aguila Was a Success at the Box-Office.” Interpretive report. Philippines Daily Express (March 6, 1980): 20-21.

———. “The World is a Newspaper.” Column. Tinig ng Plaridel [University of the Philippines Institute of Mass Communication official newspaper] (March 19, 1980): 8. Rpt. in Who (June 7, 1980): 42.

———. “Lighting Up the Countryside: Lesson in Rural Electrification.” Book review of Lighting Up the Countryside: The Story of Electric Cooperatives in the Philippines by Frank H. Denton. Daluyan [Development Academy of the Philippines bimonthly magazine] 80.1 (May-June 1980): 34- 39.

David, Joel. “Cartooning in the Philippines: A Win, Lose, and Draw Proposition.” “The Arts” feature, critical interviews of Willy Aquino, Pol Galvez, and Boy Togonon. Who (May 17, 1980): 27-29.

———. “Star-Building Pays.” Critical interviews of Dr. Rey de la Cruz, Jesse Ejercito, and Douglas Quijano. Times Journal (May 26, 1980): 21, 23.

David, Jose Hernani S. “The World is a Newspaper.” “Essay” feature. Who (June 7, 1980): 42. Originally published in Tinig ng Plaridel (March 19, 1980): 8.

———. “Second Thoughts on Kramer vs. Kramer.” Film review of Kramer vs. Kramer, dir. Robert Benton. Parade [Sunday supplement of Times Journal] (June 8, 1980): 5. Originally titled “Kramer vs. Women.”

———. “Star-Crossed.” Film review of Star Trek: The Motion Picture, dir. Robert Wise. Parade (June 15, 1980): 20.

———. “Palaban Puts Up a Decent Fight.” Film review of Palaban, dir. Eddie Romero. Times Journal (June 28, 1980): 23. Anthologized as “A Decent Fight” in The National Pastime 24-25.

———. “Rural Immersion for Career Executives.” Book review of The Indang Experience by Ledivina V. Cavino and Emma B. Vineza. Daluyan (July-August 1980): 46-48.

David, Joel. “In Bongga: Commercialism Triumphs Again.” Film review of Bongga Ka ’Day, dir. Maryo J. de los Reyes. Times Journal (August 1, 1980): 23.

David, Jose Hernani S. “Rural Organizations: In Search of Foolproof Answers.” Book review of Rural Organizations in the Philippines, ed. Marie S. Fernandez. Daluyan (November-December 1980): 36, 39.

David, Joel. “Just Another Brocka Film.” Film review of Angela Markado, dir. Lino Brocka. Times Journal (November 21, 1980): 28. Anthologized as “Just Another Exercise” in The National Pastime 175-78.

———. “Bernal’s Manila by Night Mangled.” Comparative report on Manila by Night (preview version) and City after Dark (censored version), dir. Ishmael Bernal. Times Journal (December 18, 1980): 25-26. Original published as “Manila by Night under the Knife: Those Scissors-Happy Censors Don’t Know What They’ve Missed,” Who (February 21, 1981): 28-29.

1981

David, Joel. “Local Cinema ’80: New Directions for a New Decade.” Yearend evaluation of Filipino films. The Review (January 1981): 13-17.

———. “Nine Days that Shook the Campus.” Feature article. The Review (February 1981): 6-11. Originally published in Philippine Collegian (February 2, 1979): 7; includes sidebar “A Loss Remembered,” feature on Pastor Mesina, Jr. as recounted by his parents.

———. “A Festival to Forget.” Interpretive report on Manila ’81 Event. The Review (February 1981): 51.

———. “Manila by Night Under the Knife: Those Scissors-Happy Censors Don’t Know What They’ve Missed.” Who (February 21, 1981): 28-29. Original of “Bernal’s Manila by Night Mangled,” Times Journal (December 18, 1980): 25-26.

———, transcriber and introducer. “A Review Exclusive: Manila by Night.” Original screenplay by Ishmael Bernal. The Review (March 1981): 23-41.

———. “Brocka’s Satire is Effective.” Film review of Kontrobersyal, dir. Lino Brocka. Times Journal (April 3, 1981): 21-22.

David, Joel, and Geselle Militante. “Student Activism through the Years.” Feature article. The Review (June 1981): 24-29. Includes as sidebar Roberto Z. Coloma, “The Continuing Myth.”

David, Joel. “The Value of Humility.” “Book shorts” review of Philippine Prehistory: An Anthropological Overview of the Beginnings of Filipino Society and Culture by F. Landa Jocano. The Review (June 1981): 61.

———. “Oversimplifying Class Conflicts.” “The Arts” film review of Burgis, dir. Lino Brocka. Who (August 1, 1981): 16.

———. “Our Critical Condition.” Fictional forum on Filipino film criticism. The Review (September 1981): 41-44. Derived from “How to Become a Film Critic,” Who (November 28, 1981): 27-29.

———. “Pinoy in Gangsterland.” Survey of Filipino gangster films. The Review (October 1981): 10-12.

———. “Hateful Love.” Film review of Endless Love, dir. Franco Zeffirelli. The Review (October 1981): 55-56. Originally titled “Brainless Love.”

———. “Sense (or Its Absence) in Censorship.” The Review (November-December 1981): 11-13.

———. “Exceptions.” Comparative film review of Kamakalawa, dir. Eddie Romero, and Kisapmata, dir. Mike de Leon. The Review (November-December 1981): 44-45. Anthologized in The National Pastime 28-31.

———. “How to Become a Film Critic.” “The Arts” feature. Who (November 28, 1981): 27-29. Original of “Our Critical Condition,” The Review (September 1981): 41-44.

1982

David, Joel. “Ragtime (USA), dir. Milos Forman.” Film review. The Review (February 1982): 13.

———. “Man of Iron (Poland), dir. Andrzej Wajda.” Film review. The Review (February 1982): 14-15.

———. “Insurgency in These Islands.” Feature article. The Review (March 1982): 28-31. Includes as sidebar “The 10-Point Program of the National Democratic Front,” rpt. from Southeast Asia Chronicle (May-June 1978).

———. “Holy Pain.” “Literary Folio” short story. Observer. [Sunday supplement of Times Journal, vice Parade] (May 16, 1982): 24-26. Anthologized in The Literary Apprentice 1981-1982 (Quezon City: UP Writers Club, 1982) 142-51.

———. “Waiting for Godard.” Film review of Batch ’81, dir. Mike de Leon. Who (June 16, 1982): 19-20. Anthologized in The National Pastime 32-34.

———. “Naked Debut.” Film review of Hubad na Gubat, dir. Lito Tiongson. The Review (August 1982): 43.

———. “Cinemasex.” Survey of Filipino sex films. Who (August 25, 1982): 20-22.

———. “Philippine Fisheries: A Fish-Eye View.” Feature article. The Review (September 1982): 23-25.

———. “Holy Pain.” Short story. The Literary Apprentice 1981-1982. University of the Philippines Writers Club anthology. Quezon City: UPWC, 1982. 142-51. Originally published in Observer (May 16, 1982): 24-26.

———. “Revolutionary from the Center.” The Review Corner interview with Nilo S. Tayag re the Daop Palad program. The Review (September 1982): 48.

———. “Big Hopes for Short Films.” The First Experimental Cinema of the Philippines’ Annual Short Film Festival [souvenir program] (November 16-21, 1982): 28-31. Rpt. Who (Nov. 24, 1982): 19-20.

1983

ALR Contributor. “Trends: A Fillip for Film Books.” Asiaweek [international weekly newsmagazine; in Literary Review section] (February 25, 1983): 46-47.

David, Joel. “In Defense of Oro.” Opening installment of comparative review of Oro, Plata, Mata, dir. Peque Gallaga, and Moral, dir. Marilou Diaz-Abaya, in Eddie Pacheco’s “Simply Divine” column. Sunday Special, supplement of Times Journal (May 1, 1983): 10. Originally titled “Transcendence” and anthologized in The National Pastime 106-09.

———. “Transcendence.” Concluding installment of comparative review of Oro, Plata, Mata, dir. Peque Gallaga, and Moral, dir. Marilou Diaz-Abaya, in Eddie Pacheco’s “Simply Divine” column. Sunday Special (May 8, 1983): 10. Anthologized in The National Pastime 106-09.

———. “Filipino Films Well-Received in Moscow.” Interview with Ishmael Bernal re Himala. Times Journal (July 10, 1983): 20, 19.

———. “Maestro Bandido: Refreshing Change, Precious Insights.” Film review of Maestro Bandido, dir. Reginald King. Times Mirror, afternoon newspaper of Times Journal (Aug. 15, 1983): 8.

———. “Repression and Rebellion.” Film review of Pedro Tunasan, dir. Celso Ad. Castillo. Jario Scenario, official monthly newsletter of the Experimental Cinema of the Philippines (September 1983): 4.

———. “An Everyday Tragedy.” Feature. Jario Scenario (September 1983): 3, 6.

———. “Dope Godfather: Petty, Deficient.” Film review of Dope Godfather, dir. Junn P. Cabreira. Times Mirror (September 13, 1983): 8.

———. “ECP: Indispensable to Movie Industry.” “Special Report on Film Industry” in Supplement section. Manila Evening Post, afternoon daily newspaper (September 28, 1983): 5.

———. “Pagputi: Birds of Omen.” “The New Cinema” section, film review of Pagputi ng Uwak, Pag-itim ng Tagak dir. Celso Ad. Castillo. The Urian Anthology 1970-1979, ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson (Manila: Morato, 1983) 268-71. Originally published in Philippine Collegian (July 26, 1978): 3, 6.

1984

David, Joel. “Perseverance in a Neglected Dimension.” Interview with soundperson Ramon Reyes. Diliman Review 32.2 (March-April 1984): 66-72. Includes sidebar “Partial Filmography” 69.

———. “Scenario.” Editor’s introduction. SineManila, maiden issue of Experimental Cinema of the Philippines film journal (July-September 1984): 1.

———, introducer and translator. “The Screenplay of ‘Ang Magpakailanman,’” Raymond “Goto” Red, screenwriter. SineManila (July-September 1984): 14-20. Rpt. without credit in Nick Deocampo, Short Film: Emergence of a New Philippine Cinema (Metro Manila: Communication Foundation for Asia, 1985) 143-48.

———. “Critics’ Quarterly Citations.” Report. SineManila (July-September 1984): 44.

———. “Manila Short Film Competition.” Report. SineManila (July-September 1984): 44.

———. “The Critic as Creator.” Interview with Pio de Castro III. Philippine Collegian (December 4, 1984): 4, 7.

Deloso, Rollie. “Review: Misteryo sa Tuwa.” Film review of Misteryo sa Tuwa, dir. Abbo Q. de la Cruz. Bulletin Today (December 28, 1984): 27.

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1985

David, Joel. “Historical Lessons.” Film review of Virgin Forest, dir. Peque Gallaga. Manila Standard (submitted 1985): unpublished. Anthologized in Millennial Traversals, Part I: Traversals within Cinema 60-61. Posted online.

———. “Major Bid.” Film review of Bulaklak sa City Jail, dir. Mario O’Hara. Tinig ng Plaridel (submitted 1985): unpublished. Anthologized in The National Pastime 100-02 and in The Urian Anthology 1980-1989 203-05.

———. “Bulaklak sa City Jail.” Excerpt of unpublished film review of Bulaklak sa City Jail, dir. Mario O’Hara. Ikasiyam na Gawad Urian, MPP souvenir program (March 15, 1985): n.p. Erroneously attributed to “Tinig, a UP publication.”

———. “Search Point.” Personal essay. Ang Aninag (October 1985): 4, 7. Originally titled “Searchpoint.”

1986

David, J. Hernani. “Censorship and Other Compromises.” New Day, weekend supplement of Business Day (September 15, 1986): 13. Anthologized in The National Pastime 40-41.

David, Joel. “Mike de Leon at His Best in Bilanggo sa Dilim.” Film review of Bilanggo sa Dilim, dir. Mike de Leon. New Day (September 22, 1986): 15. Includes sidebar “Mike de Leon Filmography” 15. Anthologized as “Return to Form” (without sidebar) in The National Pastime 35-37 and in The Urian Anthology 1980-1989 256-59.

———. “A Film Writer’s Experience.” Interview with Ricardo Lee. New Day (September 29, 1986): 13.

———. “The Fantasy World of Rey de la Cruz.” Interview. New Day (October 6, 1986): 12, 14.

———. “Underground, in the Heat of the Night.” Interpretive report on Filipino pornographic komiks. New Day (October 13, 1986): 17. Anthologized in The National Pastime 154-57.

———. “Triumph of 16mm. Film.” “Fantalk” column, film review of Damortis, dir. Briccio Santos. New Day (October 20, 1986): 13. Anthologized as “Triumph in 16mm.” in The National Pastime 71-74.

———. “The Business of Pleasure in ’Gapo.” Interpretive report on Olongapo City. New Day (October 27, 1986): 13-14.

———. “Where Have All Horror Films Gone?” Survey of Filipino horror films. New Day (November 3, 1986): 13. Anthologized as “Where Has All the Horror Gone?” in The National Pastime 50-52.

———. “School Lures Film Buffs to Pioneer UP Course.” New Day (November 10, 1986): 13.

———. “Local Cinema in Today’s Mass Media.” Philippines Communication Journal [quarterly publication of the University of the Philippines Institute of Mass Communication] 1 (December 1986): 69-71. Anthologized as “Film Since February 1986” in The National Pastime 120-23.

Legaspi, Jojo. “Epic Grandstanding.” Film review of The Mission, dir. Roland Joffe. National Midweek (December 10, 1986): 40(?).

1987

Legaspi, Jojo. “Exploring the World of Dreams.” Film review of Dreamscape, dir. Joseph Ruben. National Midweek (January 7, 1987): 49.

———. “Ten Years of the Metro Filmfest.” National Midweek (January 28, 1987): 39-40.

———. “Niño’s Comeback.” Film review of Kontra Bandido, dir. J. Erastheo Navoa. National Midweek (February 11, 1987): 41. Anthologized in The National Pastime 86-87.

———. “Waiting for a Renaissance.” 1986 yearend evaluation of Filipino films. National Midweek (February 11, 1987): 42-43.

———. “The Return of the Melodrama.” Film review of Kung Aagawin Mo ang Lahat sa Akin, dir. Eddie Garcia. National Midweek (March 18, 1987): 45. Anthologized as “Return of the Melodrama” in The National Pastime 132-33.

David, Joel. “Film Book Publishing.” Philippines Communication Journal 3 (June 1987): 76-79. Rpt. as “Film Books,” National Midweek (December 9, 1987): 34-35.

———. “Searching for Options.” Film review of Kid … Huwag Kang Susuko!, dir. Peque Gallaga. National Midweek (August 19, 1987): 37-38. Anthologized in The National Pastime 110-11.

———. “Mid-Year in Review.” 1987 mid-year evaluation of Filipino films. National Midweek (August 26, 1987): 41-42.

———. “O’Hara Strikes Again.” Film review of Tatlong Ina, Isang Anak, dir. Mario O’Hara. National Midweek (September 2, 1987): 40-41. Anthologized in The National Pastime 103-05.

———. “Film Education Comes of Age.” National Midweek (September 16, 1987): 31-33.

———. “Secret Love.” Film review of Mga Lihim ng Kalapati, dir. Celso Ad. Castillo. National Midweek (September 23, 1987): 34.

———. “Romero’s Flip-Flop.” Film review of Hari sa Hari, Lahi sa Lahi, dir. Eddie Romero for Philippine version and Hsiao Lang and Chou Lili for Chinese version. National Midweek (September 23, 1987): 35. Anthologized in The National Pastime 26-27.

———. “Gay Days.” Film review of Ako si Kiko, Ako si Kikay, dir. Mike Relon Makiling. National Midweek (September 30, 1987): 33-34. Anthologized as “Gross, Gaudy, & Gay” in The National Pastime 88-90.

———. “Classics for College Kids.” National Midweek (October 7, 1987): 32-33.

———. “Mellow Drama.” Film review of Paano Kung Wala Ka Na, dir. Mel Chionglo. National Midweek (October 14, 1987): 36. Anthologized in The National Pastime 134-35.

———. “Grave Burden.” Film review of Pasan Ko ang Daigdig, dir. Lino Brocka. National Midweek (October 21, 1987): 34.

———. “People Power & Cinema.” National Midweek (October 28, 1987): 36. Anthologized as “People-Power Cinema” in The National Pastime 124-26 and as “People Power and Cinema” in The Urian Anthology 1980-1989 56-59.

———. “Regal Fest.” 1987 Regal Films retrospective National Midweek (submitted November 1987): unpublished.

———. “Movie Worker.” Autobiographical account for cover feature on theme “Ordinary People.” National Midweek (November 4, 1987): 15-16.

———. “Bloody Fine.” Film review of The Untouchables, dir. Brian De Palma. National Midweek (November 11, 1987): 36, 44.

———. “Earthbound.” Film review of Pinulot Ka Lang sa Lupa, dir. Ishmael Bernal. National Midweek (November 18, 1987): 36.

———. “Child’s Play.” Film review of Takot Ako, Eh!, dir. Mario O’Hara. National Midweek (November 25, 1987): 34-35. Anthologized in The National Pastime 94-96.

———. “Preeminence of Film as Artistic Mass Medium.” Philippines Communication Journal 5 (December 1987): 43-48. Originally titled “Reflections on a National Pastime”; includes sidebar “Filmography of Titles Cited” 48.

———. “Home Sweet Home.” Theater review of Elsa Martinez Coscolluela’s Sa Tahanan ng Aking Ama, translated by Raul Regalado. National Midweek (December 2, 1987): 34-35. Anthologized in The National Pastime 158-60.

———. “Reactions to UP Film Major’s Letter.” “Feedback” section, addressed to “My dear Mr. UP Film Major.” National Midweek (December 2, 1987): 42-43.

———. “Film Books.” National Midweek (December 9, 1987): 34-35. Originally published as “Film Book Publishing” in Philippines Communication Journal 3 (June 1987): 76-79.

———. “Failed-Safe.” Film review of Walang Karugtong ang Nakaraan, dir. Leroy Salvador. National Midweek (December 16, 1987): 33. Anthologized in The National Pastime 136-37.

———. “The Devil to Pay.” Film review of The Witches of Eastwick, dir. George Miller. National Midweek (December 23, 1987): 35-36.

1988

———. “A Festival to Forget.” 1987 Metro Manila Film Festival evaluation. Conjuncture [Institute for Popular Democracy publication] 1.4 (January 1988): 8.

———. “Chauvinist’s Nightmare.” Film review of Kumander Gringa, dir. Mike Relon Makiling. National Midweek (January 13, 1988): 33-34. Inside pages erroneously bear “1987” as year. Anthologized in The National Pastime 91-93 and in The Urian Anthology 1980-1989 136-39.

———. “The Curse of Good Intentions.” 1987 Metro Manila Film Festival evaluation. National Midweek (January 20, 1988): 29-31.

———. “Movie(?) of ’87.” Film review of Film Trilogy on the Theme of Poverty and Prostitution, dir. Rosa ng Maynila. National Midweek (January 27, 1988): 29-30. Anthologized as “Movie(?) of the Year” in The National Pastime 75-77 and in The Urian Anthology 1980-1989 260-63.

———. “Bad Takes for the Film Industry,” Conjuncture 1.5-6 (February-March 1988): 8.

———. “’87 in Review: Quo Vadis?” 1987 yearend evaluation of Filipino films. National Midweek (February 3, 1988): 30-31.

———. “Image-Building.” Film review of Huwag Mong Itanong Kung Bakit, dir. Eddie Garcia. National Midweek (February 3, 1988): 31-32.

———. “Down But Not Out.” Comparative film review of Nektar, dir. Francis “Jun” Posadas, and Tubusin Mo ng Dugo, dir. Pepe Marcos. National Midweek (February 17, 1988): 28-29. Anthologized in The National Pastime 56-58.

———. “Reversals.” Film review of Misis Mo, Misis Ko, dir. Carlos Siguion Reyna. National Midweek (March 2, 1988): 35-36. Anthologized in The National Pastime 138-40 and in The Urian Anthology 1980-1989 238-40.

———. “Renewal of Appreciation.” Film review of Manila by Night, dir. Ishmael Bernal. National Midweek (March 16, 1988): 4-5. Anthologized in The National Pastime 169-71.

———. “Moments of Truth.” Comparative film review of Anak ng Cabron, dir. Wilfredo Milan, and Afuang: Bounty Hunter, dir. Mike Relon Makiling. National Midweek (March 23, 1988): 29-30. Anthologized in The National Pastime 59-61.

———. “Form and Function.” Comparative film review of Silent Voice, dir. Mike Newell, and Full Metal Jacket, dir. Stanley Kubrick. National Midweek (April 6, 1988): 30-31.

———. “Komiks Without Pain.” Film review of Saan Nagtatago ang Pag-ibig?, dir. Eddie Garcia. National Midweek (April 13, 1988): 31.

———. “Balancing Acts.” Film review of Hati Tayo sa Magdamag, dir. Lupita A. Kashiwahara. National Midweek (April 27, 1988): 29-30.

———. “Slow Train to Thailand.” Interpretive report on contemporary Thai film scene. National Midweek (July 20, 1988): 20-22.

———. “Studious Studios.” Interpretive report on re-emergence of Filipino studio system. National Midweek (July 20, 1988): 30-31. Anthologized in The National Pastime 126-28.

———. “Progressions, Retrogressions.” Comparative film review of Isusumbong Kita sa Diyos, dir. Emmanuel H. Borlaza, Kapag Napagod ang Puso, dir. Maryo J. de los Reyes, and Nagbabagang Luha, dir. Ishmael Bernal. National Midweek (August 24, 1988): 31-32. Originally titled “Progressions” and anthologized in The National Pastime 141-43.

———. “Bioflicks.” Comparative film review of Operation: Get Victor Corpus, the Rebel Soldier, dir. Pablo Santiago, Balweg: The Rebel Priest, dir. Butch Perez, and Kumander Dante, dir. Ben (M-7) Yalung. National Midweek (October 26, 1988): 29-30. Anthologized in The National Pastime 62-64.

David, Joel. “Perils of Politics.” Film review of A Dangerous Life, dir. Robert Markowitz. National Midweek (submitted November 1988): unpublished. Anthologized in The National Pastime 78-80.

———. “Campout.” Comparative film review of Natutulog Pa ang Diyos, dir. Lino Brocka, Paano Tatakasan ang Bukas, dir. Emmanuel H. Borlaza, and Sa Puso Ko Hahalik ang Mundo, dir. Artemio Marquez. National Midweek (November 9, 1988): 33. Anthologized in The National Pastime 144-46.

———. “Causes for Cerebration.” Comparative film review of Tiyanak, dir. Peque Gallaga and Lorenzo Reyes, and Babaing Hampaslupa, dir. Mel Chionglo. National Midweek (December 21, 1988): 28-29. Anthologized in The National Pastime 53-55.

———. “Perils of Politics.” Unpublished film review of A Dangerous Life, dir. Robert Markowitz. Submitted to National Midweek, 1988. Anthologized in The National Pastime 78-80.

1989

David, Joel. “To Give Critical Support to Filmmakers.” Kultura. Quarterly journal of the Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas. 2.1 (1989): 52-56. Originally titled “Film Reviewing and Film Criticism” and anthologized as “Film Reviewing and Criticism” in The National Pastime 42-47.

———. “Filmfest Flimflam.” 1988 Metro Manila Film Festival evaluation. National Midweek (January 18, 1989): 8-9. Originally titled “Filmfest Flimflammery”; with cover citation and sidebar “MMFF Winners” 9.

———. “Local Cinema ’88.” 1988 yearend evaluation of Filipino films. National Midweek (January 25, 1989): 28-29.

———. “Film-Writing.” Book review of Ricardo Lee’s Si Tatang at mga Himala ng Ating Panahon. National Midweek (February 8, 1989): 27-28. Anthologized in The National Pastime 161-62. Excerpted in Ricky Lee, Si Tatang at mga Himala ng Ating Panahon: Koleksyon ng mga Akda (Quezon City: Writers Studio Foundation, 2009) 11.

———. “Roño’s Rondos.” Comparative film review of Itanong Mo sa Buwan and Si Baleleng at ang Gintong Sirena, dir. Chito Roño. National Midweek (March 1, 1989): 29-30. Anthologized as “Roño’s Rondo,” excluding Si Baleleng review, in The Urian Anthology 1980-1989 236-37.

———. “High-Flying.” Video review of Imelda: Paruparong Bakal, dir. Chito Roño. National Midweek (March 15, 1989): 32. Anthologized in The National Pastime 81-82.

———. “Macho Dancer: Text vs. Texture.” Cover story, film review of Macho Dancer, dir. Lino Brocka. Kultura 2.2 (1989): 26-33. Originally titled “Text vs. Texture” and anthologized in The National Pastime 179-84.

———. “Empire of the (Risen) Sun.” Cover topic, interpretive report on contemporary Japanese film scene. National Midweek (April 12, 1989): 3-7.

———. “An Awakening.” Film review of Pahiram ng Isang Umaga, dir. Ishmael Bernal. National Midweek (April 12, 1989): 32. Anthologized in The National Pastime 172-74.

———. “Short Subjects.” Comparative film review of Mga Kuwento ng Pag-ibig, dir. Jun Cabreira, Luciano Carlos, and Artemio Marquez, and 3 Mukha ng Pag-ibig, dir. Emmanuel H. Borlaza, Lino Brocka, and Leroy Salvador. National Midweek (May 10, 1989): 28-29. Anthologized in The National Pastime 68-70.

———. “Life after Life.” Comparative film review of Mississippi Burning, dir. Alan Parker, and They Live, dir. John Carpenter. National Midweek (June 21, 1989): 29-30.

David, Jose Hernani S. “Ethics First (Rather than Aesthetics).” The National Pastime 190-97. Originally read at the Aspects of Philippine Film panel of the Third International Philippine Studies Conference. Quezon City, 1989.

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1990

David, Joel. The National Pastime: Contemporary Philippine Cinema. Pasig City: Anvil, 1990.

———. “A Second Golden Age: An Informal History.” The National Pastime 1-17. Originally published in Kultura.

———. Reviews and essays. The National Pastime. Originally published in various print outlets.

——— [uncredited]. “After the Revolution.” Film review of Orapronobis, dir. Lino Brocka. National Midweek (January 10, 1990): 28-29. Error in missing credit acknowledged in “Self-Criticism Department” (January 17, 1990): 43. Anthologized in The National Pastime 185-89.

———. “From ‘Sister Stella L.’ to ‘Starzan.’” 1980s Philippine cinema in review. National Midweek (January 24, 1990): 14-16.

———. “Slugged Out.” Comparative film review of Imortal, dir. Eddie Garcia, and Ang Bukas Ay Akin: Langit ang Uusig, dir. Laurice Guillen. National Midweek (January 31, 1990): 30-31. Anthologized in The National Pastime 147-50.

———. “Carnival Cinema.” Exhibition review of Cinevision 2000’s “Adventures of America.” National Midweek (February 7, 1990): 28-29. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 102-05.

———. “…And the First Shall Be the Last.” Film review of The Last Temptation of Christ, dir. Martin Scorsese. National Midweek (March 14, 1990): 31.

———. “’80s Foreign Fare.” 1980s foreign cinema in review. National Midweek (March 28, 1990): 28-29.

———. “No End in Sight.” Film review of Kung Tapos Na ang Kailanman, dir. Lino Brocka. National Midweek (March 28, 1990): 29-30. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 62-65.

———. “Bienvenido Lumbera.” Interview (cover title “Critic in Academe). National Midweek (April 4, 1990): 20-22, 46.

———. “Levels of Independence.” Attempted definition of indie cinema. National Midweek (April 25, 1990): 29-30.

———. “Soldier Blues.” Film review of Casualties of War, dir. Brian De Palma. National Midweek (May 9, 1990): 29.

———. “Ma(so?)chismo.” Comparative film review of Barumbado, dir. Willy Milan, and Kasalanan ang Buhayin Ka, dir. Francisco “Jun” Posadas. National Midweek (May 23, 1990): 30. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 82-84.

———. “Firmament Occupation.” Discussion of star system. National Midweek (May 30, 1990): 29-30. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 114-16.

———. “I.O.U.” Film review of Kahit Singko Hindi Ko Babayaran ang Buhay Mo, dir. Jesus Jose. National Midweek (June 6, 1990): 31. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 85-87.

———. “Men & Myths.” Film review of Bala at Rosaryo, dir. Pepe Marcos. National Midweek (June 6, 1990): 31. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 80-82.

———. “Head Held High.” Film review of Gumapang Ka sa Lusak, dir. Lino Brocka. National Midweek (June 20, 1990): 28-29. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 65-68; and in The Urian Anthology 1990-1999, ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2010) 148-51.

———. “Record-Breaking Blues.” Originally titled “Blues Hit Parade.” Discussion of blockbusters. National Midweek (June 27, 1990): 28. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 116-18.

———. “Film on Film.” Film review of Big Flick in the Sky, dir. Kenneth M. Angliongto. National Midweek (June 27, 1990): 29.

David, Joel, with Melanie Joy C. Garduño. “The 10 Best Filipino Films.” Cover story, titled “The 10 Best Filipino Films Ever Made.” National Midweek (July 4, 1990): 3-9. Anthologized as “Ten Best Filipino Films Up to 1990” in Fields of Vision 125-36.

David, Joel. “Gloria in Excessus.” Film review of Glory, dir. Edward Zwick. National Midweek (July 4, 1990): 30.

———. “Frontline.” Film review of Born on the Fourth of July, dir. Oliver Stone. National Midweek (August 22, 1990): 30.

———. “Cool Film.” Film review of Hot Summer, dir. Mel Chionglo. National Midweek (September 5, 1990): 29. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 51-53.

———. “Mudslung.” Comparative film review of Ibabaon Kita sa Lupa, dir. Toto Natividad, and Ayaw Matulog ng Gabi, dir. Carlo J. Caparas. National Midweek (September 19, 1990): 31. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 87-89.

———. “Demachofication.” Film review of Kristobal, dir. Francis “Jun” Posadas. National Midweek (September 26, 1990): 30. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 77-80.

———. “Worth the While.” Listing of “memorable” ’80s film scenes. National Midweek (September 26, 1990): 30-32. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 119-24.

———. “World’s Longest Footnote.” “From the author’s forthcoming Anvil Publishing volume, Contemporary Philippine Cinema: Reviews and Criticism [sic – title should read The National Pastime: Contemporary Philippine Cinema].” National Midweek (October 3, 1990): 30. Anthologized as “World’s Longest Prequel” in The National Pastime 198-99.

———. “Film Critics Speak.” “Prepared by Mike Feria, Patrick Flores, and the author as State of Criticism statement of the Young Critics Circle.” National Midweek (October 3, 1990): 32. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 80-82. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 107-09.

———. “Woman-Worthy.” Comparative film review of Kasalanan Ba’ng Sambahin Ka?, dir. Chito Roño, and Hahamakin Lahat, dir. Lino Brocka. National Midweek (October 17, 1990): 28-30. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 74-77.

———. “Classroom as Theater.” Discussion of film education policy. National Midweek (October 17, 1990): 31-32. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 105-07.

———. “Nothing Much about Ado.” Film review of Pido Dida (Sabay Tayo), dir. Tony Cruz. National Midweek (October 24, 1990): 28. Anthologized in The Urian Anthology 1990-1999, ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2010) 136-37; and as “Family Affairs” in Fields of Vision 69-71.

———. “Updates.” Short discussions of the horror, sex, and action genres; melodrama; performers; formats; and media. National Midweek (October 24, 1990): 30. Anthologized in The National Pastime 65, 151, 97, 83, 163 resp.

———. “Movable Fists.” Comparative film review of Walang Awa Kung Pumatay, dir. Junn P. Cabreira, Iisa-Isahin Ko Kayo, Francis “Jun” Posadas, and Apoy sa Lupang Hinirang, dir. Mauro Gia. Samonte. National Midweek (November 28, 1990): 30. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 89-92.

———. “Sedulously Cebuano.” Film review of Eh … Kasi … Bisaya!, dir. Junn P. Cabreira. National Midweek (November 28, 1990): p. unkn. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 97-99.

———. “Film Reviewing and Criticism I,” “Film Reviewing and Criticism II,” & “Film Reviewing and Criticism III.” National Midweek (December 5, 12, & 26 [resp.], 1990): 29, 30, & 29-30 resp. Anthologized as “Film Reviewing and Criticism” in The National Pastime 42-47.

1991

David, Joel. “Sequacious and Second-Rate.” Comparative film review of Pido Dida 2 (Kasal Na), dir. Tony Cruz, and Anak ni Baby Ama, dir. Deo J. Fajardo Jr. National Midweek (submitted 1991): unpublished. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 71-74.

———. “Persistence of Vision.” Film review of Bakit Kay Tagal ng Sandali, dir. Chito Roño. National Midweek (submitted 1991): unpublished. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 47-51.

———. “No End in Sight.” Film review of Kung Tapos Na ang Kailanman, dir. Lino Brocka. National Midweek (submitted 1991): unpublished. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 62-65.

———. “Maryo J. and Mr. de los Reyes.” Comparative film review of My Other Woman and Underage Too, both dir. Maryo J. de los Reyes. National Midweek (submitted 1991): unpublished. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 44-47.

———. “Indigenous Ingenuity.” Film review of Andrea, Paano Ba ang Maging Isang Ina?, dir. Gil Portes. National Midweek (submitted 1991): unpublished. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 56-62.

———. “Directors-Editors.” Comparative film review of Kaaway ng Batas, dir. Pepe Marcos, and Angel Molave, dir. Augusto Salvador. National Midweek (submitted 1991): unpublished. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 41-44.

———. “Horse Yearender.” 1990 in review. National Midweek (February 27, 1991): 30.

———. “Class Clamorers.” Comparative film review of Too Young and Shake, Rattle & Roll II, dir. Peque Gallaga and Lore Reyes, and Biktima and Ama … Bakit Mo Ako Pinabayaan?, dir. Lino Brocka. National Midweek (February 13, 1991): 28-29. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 92-97.

———. “Great Philippine All-Time One-Shot Awards Ceremony.” National Midweek (February 20, 1991): 28-29. Anthologized as “All-Time One-Shot Awards Ceremony” in Fields of Vision 137-42.

———. “Three Careers.” Comparative film review of Umiyak Pati Langit, dir. Eduardo Palmos, Bago Matapos ang Lahat, dir. Joselito “Abbo” de la Cruz, and Ganito Ba ang Umibig?, dir. Laurice Guillen. National Midweek (March 27, 1991): 28-29. Anthologized in Fields of Vision 37-41.

1992

David, Joel. “Adaptation Comes of Age.” Opera review of Giacomo Puccini’s La Bohéme, dir. Rolando Tinio. Manila Standard (submitted 1992). Anthologized in Millennial Traversals, Part II: Expanded Perspectives 1-3. Posted online.

———. “Some Words on Film Awards.” Mediawatch. [N.d. 1992?]: [Pp. undetermined, 3 pp. + 2-p. sidebar titled “List of Film Awards for 1991 Productions].

———. “Black and Blue and Red.” Film review of Bayani, dir. Raymond Red. Manila Standard (July 1, 1992): 19.

1993

David, Jose Hernani S. “Fictions in Flux: Documentary Dimensions of Philippine Cinema.” Paper read at the Documenting Fictions: Documentary Dimensions of the Fiction Film conference sponsored by the Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg American Studies Center, Clark European Center in Luxembourg, Fondation Promomedia, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cinematheque Municipale, and the American Embassy. Luxembourg City, 1993.

———. “Queer Representation in Philippine Cinema.” Paper read at the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Community Center sponsored by the Gay Asian & Pacific Islander Men of New York. New York, 1993.

1994

David, Joel. Various entries for Philippine Film, vol. 8 of the CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Art, ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson (Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines, 1994): “Aksyon” (with Lynn Pareja) 82-83; “Animation” (with Lynn Pareja) 83-84; “Horror” (with Lynn Pareja) 90; “Komedi” (with Lynn Pareja) 90-91; “Musical” (with Lynn Pareja & Nicanor G. Tiongson) 92-93; “Acting” (with Justino Dormiendo) 96-97; “Cinematography” (with Nick Cruz) 105-07; “Distribution” (with Rosalie Matilac) 112-14; “Production” (with Nick Cruz & Rosalie Matilac) 124-28; “Sound Recording” (with Nick Cruz) 134-36; and “Studies and Training” (with Lynn Pareja) 136-37.

David, Joel. Various entries for Philippine Literature, vol. 9 of the CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Art, ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson (Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines, 1994): “Movie Times” 473; “Notes on Philippine Cinema” 475; “Readings in Philippine Cinema” 484-85; and “The Urian Anthology 1970-1979” 495.

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1995

David, Joel. Fields of Vision: Critical Applications in Recent Philippine Cinema. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1995.

———. “The ‘New’ Cinema in Retrospect.” Fields of Vision 1-36. Anthologized in The Urian Anthology 1990-1999, ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson (Manila: University of the Philippines Press, 2010) 58-83.

1998

David, Joel. “A Question of Appositeness: Structuralism to Poststructuralism.” Wages of Cinema: Film in Philippine Perspective (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1998) 3-13.

———. “The Multiple-Character Film Format.” Wages of Cinema 14-25.

———. “Genre Pastiche in the Horror Film.” Wages of Cinema 26-37.

———. “Auteur Criticism: A Non-Recuperative Reappraisal.” Wages of Cinema 38-47. Originally read at the New York University Annual Student Conference (New York, 1994).

———. “A Cultural Policy Experience in Philippine Cinema.” Wages of Cinema 48-61. Originally read at the Socio-Politics of the Cinema of the Philippines panel at the Asian Cinema (Poetics & Politics) Annual Ohio University Film Conference (Athens, 1994).

———. “Viable Lessons From Another Third-World Model.” Wages of Cinema 65-79.

———. “Race as Discourse in Southeast Asia Film Ethnographies.” Wages of Cinema 80-91.

———. “Ideas in Philippine Film: A Critical Survey.” Wages of Cinema. 92-101. Originally read in altered form at the Pelikulang Pilipino: A Review of Contemporary Philippine Cinema forum at Columbia University, sponsored by Liga Filipina and Arkipelago (New York, 1994).

———. “Practice Makes Perfect: Alternative Philippine Cinema.” Wages of Cinema. 102-12. Originally read at the (In)Dependent Film Practice in a Third-World Setting panel of the Society for Cinema Studies Annual Conference (Syracuse, 1994).

———. “A History of the History of a History-To-Be.” Wages of Cinema. 113-28. Originally read at the PeregriNations: The Philippines as a Nation in Cinema panel of the Society for Cinema Studies Annual Conference (New York, 1995).

———. “Gender as Masquerade in the Vietnam-War Film.” Wages of Cinema 131-45. Originally read at the New York University Annual Student Conference (New York, 1995).

———. “Film in the Light of the ‘History’ of Sexuality.” Wages of Cinema 146-56.

———. “Pornography and Erotica: Boundaries in Dissolution.” Wages of Cinema 157-68.

———. “Womanliness as (Masculine) Masquerade in Psychoanalytic Film-Texts.” Wages of Cinema 169-79.

———. “Postcolonial Conundrum: Third-World Film in Perverse Perspective.” Wages of Cinema. 180-200. Originally read at the New York University Annual Student Conference (New York, 1996).

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1998

David, Joel. Wages of Cinema: Film in Philippine Perspective. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1998.

2000

David, Joel. “Philippine Film History as a Site of Postcolonial Discourse.” Geopolitics of the Visible: Essays on Philippine Film Cultures, ed. Rolando B. Tolentino (Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2000) 3-12.

2001

David, Joel. Reviews and essays. The Urian Anthology 1980-1989, ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson (Quezon City: Tuviera, 2001). Originally published in various print outlets.

2002

David, Jose Hernani Segovia. Primates in Paradise: The Multiple-Character Format in Philippine Film Practice (New York University, 2002 and Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 2002). UMI 3048810.

David, Joel. “Ten Best Films of All Time” contribution. Sight & Sound, British Film Institute magazine (September 2002): 29. Posted online.

2003

David, Joel. “A Certain Tendency: Europeanization as a Response to Americanization and Other Issues in the ‘Golden-Age’ Studio System.” Paper read at the Sangandaan: Arts and Media in Philippine-American Relations, 1899-2002 conference sponsored by the University of the Philippines and the Filipino American National Historical Society (Quezon City, 2003).

———. “Chosen Few: Minimal Multi-Character Patterns in Recent Filipino Films.” Paper read at the Freeze-Frame: New Issues in Philippine Cinema conference sponsored by the University of the Philippines Visayas Cebu College (Cebu City, 2003).

2004

David, Joel. “Sabel: Heaven in Mind.” Film review of Sabel, dir. Joel C. Lamangan. Philippine Star (July 11, 2004): E6. Posted online. Also posted online at Regalfilms.com. Rpt. as “They Don’t Make Films Like Sabel Anymore,” Philippine Daily Inquirer (July 13, 2004): A23.

———. “They Don’t Make Films Like Sabel Anymore.” Film review of Sabel, dir. Joel C. Lamangan. Philippine Daily Inquirer (July 13, 2004): A23. Also posted online at Inq7.net. Originally published as “Sabel: Heaven in Mind,” Philippine Star (July 11, 2004): E6.

———. “Literalized Communities: The Pinoy Milieu Movie’s Aesthetic and Social Dimensions.” Ramon Cojuangco Professorial Chair lecture read at the UP College of Mass Communication Faculty Colloquia (Quezon City, 2004).

———. “Multiple Choices, Multiple Voices: Critical Possibilities of the Milieu Movie.” Paper read at the 40th Communication Colloquium, Institute for Communication Arts & Technology, Hallym University (Chuncheon, Korea, 2004).

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2005

David, Joel. “Cutthroat Archipelago: Video Piracy in and around the Philippines.” Culture Industry and Cultural Capital: Transnational Media Consumption and the Korean New Wave in East Asia: Conference Proceedings, ed. Kim Shin-dong. Paper read at the Culture Industry and Cultural Capital: Transnational Media Consumption and the Korean New Wave in East Asia conference sponsored by the Institute for Communication Arts & Technology, Hallym University (Seoul, Korea, 2005).

———. “Introduction.” Ordinary People, Extraordinary Lives: A Folio by the Feature Writing Class, Fall Semester 2004-2005, School of Communication, Hallym University (Chuncheon: Hallym University, 2005) 3.

———. “Growing Old in New York (or Small World, Big Apple).” Personal essay. The Hallym Post 21 (May 2, 2005): 4.

———. “A Yearning for Tenderness: A Scenario for Korean Cinema.” Paper for “Waves from Korea and Japan in a Cross-Cultural Context” panel at the National, Transnational, and International: Asian Cinema in the Context of Globalization – Centennial Celebration of Chinese Cinema conference sponsored by the Shanghai University School of Film and TV Arts and Technology, Beijing University Department of Arts Studies, and (US) Asian Cinema Studies Society (Shanghai and Beijing, China, 2005).

2006

David, Joel. “Queer Shuttling: Korea – Manila – New York.” Queer Film and Video Festival Forum, Take Two: Critics Speak Out section. Ed. Chris Straayer and Thomas Waugh. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 12.4 (2006): 614-17.

———. “Indochine and the Dynamics of Gender.” Proceedings of the Whither the Orient: Asians in Asian and Non-Asian Cinema Conference, Kimdaejung Convention Center, Gwangju, Korea, 28-29 October 2006, ed. Joel David (Seoul: Asia Culture Forum, 2006) 248-72.

———. “Indochine and the Politics of Gender.” Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 12.4 (Winter 2006): 61-93.

———. “Condemned Property: Film Piracy in the Philippines.” Paper read at The Film Scene: Cinema, the Arts, and Social Change conference sponsored by the Film Culture Project of the Department of Comparative Literature, Department of Music, and the Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, 2006).

2007

데이비드, 조엘. “필리핀의 냉전 영화정책” and “Cold-War Film Policy in the Philippines.” 동아시아 냉전문화의 역학: 1960~70년대 냉전기 동아시아 지역의 문화변동과 국민국가의 문화정치학 세미나, 성공회대학교 동아시아연구소, translator unknown (Seoul: Institute for East Asian Studies, SungKongHoe University, 2007) 74-86 and 186-99 resp. Paper read at the Dynamics of Cold War Culture in East Asia: Cultural Changes in the Region during the Cold War in the 1960s-70s and Cultural Politics of the Nation-State conference sponsored by the Institute for East Asian Studies, Sungkonghoe University (Seoul, 2007).

2008

David, Joel. “Awake in the Dark: Philippine Film During the Marcos Era.” Philippine Studies: Have We Gone Beyond St. Louis? ed. Priscelina Patajo Legasto (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2008) 227-43.

———. “The Cold-War and Marcos-Era Cinema in the Philippines.” Paper read at the 8th ASEAN Inter-University Conference on Social Development (Manila, 2008).

———. “Understanding Film.” Paper read at the University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication Faculty Colloquium (Quezon City, 2008).

———. “The Philippine Culture Industry (with Emphasis on Cinema).” Paper read at the Institute of Asian Studies Colloquium. SungKongHoe University (Seoul, 2008).

2009

David, Joel. “Translating Time: Cinema, the Fantastic, and Temporal Critique [by] Bliss Cua Lim, Durham: Duke University Press, 2009, 246+xiv pages.” Book review. Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 15.4 (Winter 2009): 124-32.

———. “Retrospective: Serbis Review.” Film review of Serbis, dir. Brillante Ma. Mendoza. Philippine Entertainment Portal (May 31, 2009). Posted online.

———. “A New Role for Korea in Asia.” Korea Times (June 2, 2009): 15. Posted online.

———. “Kim Dae-jung & the Aquinos.” Korea Times (August 24, 2009): 4. Posted online.

———. “Boses Is for the World.” Film review of Boses, dir. Ellen Ongkeko-Marfil. Philippine Daily Inquirer (October 16, 2009): F2. Posted online.

———. “Clueless Global Hybrid, Now Showing.” Film review of I Come with the Rain, dir. Tran Anh Hung. Pinoy Voices column. JungAng Daily (November 9, 2009): 11. Posted online.

———. “Heartbreak in Mindanao.” Pinoy Voices column. JungAng Daily (December 14, 2009): 11. Posted online.

———. [“Film-Writing.”] Excerpt of book review. Si Tatang at mga Himala ng Ating Panahon: Koleksyon ng mga Akda by Ricky Lee. (Quezon City: Writers Studio Foundation, 2009) 11. Originally in National Midweek (February 8, 1989): 27-28.

———. “Context: An Introduction.” Hulmahan/Huwaran Atbp.: The Film Writings of Johven Velasco, ed. Joel David (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2009) ix-xiv.

데이비드, 조엘. “냉전시기필리핀의영화정책.” 냉전 아시아의 문화풍경 2: 1960~1970년대, trans. 김수현 (Seoul: Institute for East Asian Studies, SungKongHoe University, 2009) 277-96.

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2010

David, Joel. “A Few Insights into our Asian Casanovas.” Pinoy Voices column. JungAng Daily (January 25, 2010): 11. Posted online.

———. “The Sins of the Fathers.” Viewpoints (formerly Pinoy Voices) column. JungAng Daily (April 12, 2010): 11. Posted online.

———. “2 Guys Watching Avatar.” Viewpoints (formerly Pinoy Voices) column. JungAng Daily (March 8, 2010): unpublished. Anthologized in Millennial Traversals, Part I: Traversals within Cinema 154-57. Posted online.

———. “Sighs and Whispers.” Film review of Biyaheng Lupa, dir. Armando Lao. Philippine Star (May 2, 2010): E2. Posted online.

David, Joel, and Ha Ju-Yong. “A Yearning for Tenderness in Korean Cinema.” Global Makeover: Media and Culture in Asia, ed. Danilo Araña Arao (Quezon City and Seoul: Development Center for Asia Africa Pacific and Asian Media and Culture Forum, 2010) 35-54.

David, Joel. “Orientalism and Classical Film Practice.” Global Makeover: Media and Culture in Asia, ed. Danilo Araña Arao (Quezon City and Seoul: Development Center for Asia Africa Pacific and Asian Media and Culture Forum, 2010) 139-54.

———. “Las edades de oro del cine Filipino: Una reevaluación crítica.” Cinema Filipinas: Historia, teoría y crítica fílmica (1999-2009), ed. Juan Guardiola ([Andalucía]: Juna de Andalucía, Consejería de Cultura Fundación El Legado Andalusí, [2010]) 37-48.

———. “The Golden Ages of Philippine Cinema: A Critical Reassessment.” Cinema Filipinas 217-24.

2011

David, Joel. “Primates in Paradise: Critical Possibilities of the Milieu Movie.” Kritika Kultura 17 (August 2011): 70-104. Posted online.

———. “Punch Tackles Fil-Korean’s Search for Mother.” Film review of Wandeugi, dir. Lee Han. ABS-CBNnews.com (November 28, 2011). Posted online. Rpt. in Chinese News of Las Vegas (November 28, 2011); Filipinos Abroad (November 27, 2011); H3 blog (November 28, 2011); MabuhayCity.com (November 28, 2011); Philippine Times of Southern Nevada (November 28, 2011); Saigon News of Las Vegas (November 28 2011); US News Las Vegas (November 28, 2011); US News Los Angeles (November 28, 2011) – all posted online.

2012

David, Joel. “The Dolphy Conundrum.” The FilAm (July 16, 2012). Posted online. Rpt. as “Kwentong Kapuso: The Dolphy ‘Riddle,’” GMA News Online (July 17, 2012), also posted online.

———. “Introduction.” Guest Editor’s introduction to Forum Kritika: A Closer Look at Manila by Night. Kritika Kultura 19 (August 2012): 6-13. Posted online.

———. “Film Plastics in Manila by Night.” Kritika Kultura 19 (August 2012): 36-69. Posted online.

———, transcription and notes. “Ishmael Bernal’s Manila by Night.” Screenplay, with transcription by Alfred A. Yuson. Kritika Kultura 19 (August 2012): 172-272. Posted online.

———. “The Marcos Dictatorship and the Irreparable Damage to a Family and the Filipino Experience.” Review of Subversive Lives: A Family Memoir of the Marcos Years, by Susan F. Quimpo & Nathan Gilbert Quimpo. Originally titled “Disorder & Constant Sorrow (A Review of Subversive Lives).” The FilAm (September 18, 2012). Posted online. Rpt. as “The Marcos Regime and Its Impact on the Pinoy Family,” GMA News Online (September 18, 2012), also posted online.

———. “Marilou Diaz-Abaya, 57: Rule Breaker, Risk Taker.” Obituary. Originally titled “The Carnal Moral of a Brutal Miracle.” The FilAm (October 12, 2012). Posted online. Rpt. as “Acclaimed Filmmaker Marilou Diaz-Abaya Was a Rule Breaker,” GMA News Online (October 12, 2012), also posted online.

———. “High Drama and Low Humor in Ricky Lee’s New Fiction about a Cross-Dressing Manananggal.” Review of Si Amapola sa 65 na Kabanata, by Ricky Lee. Originally titled “The Novel Pinoy Novel.” The FilAm (November 8, 2012). Posted online. Rpt. as “What Republicans Could Have Learned from Ricky Lee’s Amapola,” GMA News Online (November 9, 2012), also posted online.

———. “Thinking Straight: Queer Imaging in Lino Brocka’s Maynila (1975).” Plaridel 9.2 (August 2012): 21-40.

———. “Glimpses of Freedom: Independent Cinema in Southeast Asia [by] May Adadol Ingawanij & Benjamin McKay, eds, Ithaca: Cornell Southeast Asia Program Publications, 2012, viii+246 pp.” Book review. Southeast Asian Studies 1.3 (December 2012): 529-33. Posted online.

2013

David, Joel. “A Benediction We Deserve.” The FilAm (February 13, 2013). Posted online.

———. “High Five for Ninotchka Rosca’s Sanaysay Anthology.” Originally titled “High Five.” Review of Gang of 5: Tales, Cuentos, Sanaysay ([Los Angeles]: Mariposa Center [for Change], 2012). The FilAm (February 21, 2013). Posted online.

———. “Across the Korean Peninsula, Unease in the Morning Calm.” The FilAm (April 18, 2013). Posted online. Rpt. as “Kwentong Kapuso: Unease in the ‘Land of the Morning Calm,’” GMA News Online (April 19, 2013), also posted online.

———. “Tribute to Bangy Dioquino.” Amauteurish! (Delivered May 2013). Posted online on October 5, 2017.

———. “OFWs in Foreign Cinema: An Introduction.” Guest Editor’s introduction to Monograph Section. Kritika Kultura 21/22 (August 2013): 557-59. Posted online.

———. “Phantom in Paradise: A Philippine Presence in Hollywood Cinema.” Kritika Kultura 21/22 (August 2013): 560-83. Posted online.

———. “Pinoy Film Criticism: A Lover’s Polemic.” The Manila Review 3 (August 2013): 6-8 [n.b.: print edition is erroneously indicated as issue “1”]. Posted online.

———. “On the Job: On the Edge.” Originally titled “On the Edge.” Review of On the Job, dir. Erik Matti. The FilAm (September 12, 2013). Posted online.

———. “The OFW Finds Well-Deserved Recognition in Hollywood (Part 1).” Originally titled “A Desire Named Oscar,” first part. Including review of Ilo Ilo, dir. Anthony Chen. The FilAm (December 4, 2013). Posted online.

———. “Metro Manila and Transit: Ambitious, Impressive (Part 2).” Originally titled “A Desire Named Oscar,” second part. Reviews of Metro Manila, dir. Sean Ellis; and Transit, dir. Hannah Espia. The FilAm (December 4, 2013). Posted online.

2014

David, Joel. The National Pastime: Contemporary Philippine Cinema. Digital edition. Amauteurish, 2014.

———. Fields of Vision: Critical Applications in Recent Philippine Cinema. Digital edition. Amauteurish, 2014.

———. Wages of Cinema: Film in Philippine Perspective. Digital edition. Amauteurish, 2014.

———. “Pinoy Filmfests circa 2013.” The Manila Review 4 (February 2014): 29-32. Posted online.

———. “Phantom Limbs in the Body Politic: Filipinos in Foreign Cinema.” Plaridel 11.1 (February 2014): 35-60.

———. “Norte, a Four-Hour Ideological Tearjerker by Lav Diaz.” Originally titled “Beyond Borders.” Review of Norte, dir. Lav Diaz. The FilAm (March 12, 2014). Posted online.

———. “Sight & Sound ’02.” Inside account of the process of my submission to the decadal poll. Amauteurish! (May 30, 2014). Posted online.

———. “A National Artist We Deserve.” The FilAm (June 21, 2014). Posted online.

———. “Nora Aunor: A National Artist We Deserve.” Rappler (June 23, 2014). Posted online.

David, Joel, and Ha Ju-Yong. “A Revaluation of the Use of Trauma as an Approach to Understanding Contemporary Korean Cinema.” Asian Studies: Journal of Critical Perspectives on Asia 50.1 (2014): 16-50.

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2015

David, Joel. Millennial Traversals: Outliers, Juvenilia, & Quondam Popcult Blabbery. Original digital edition. Amauteurish, 2015.

———. Millennial Traversals: Outliers, Juvenilia, & Quondam Popcult Blabbery. Part I: Traversals within Cinema – special issue of UNITAS: Semi-Annual Peer-Reviewed International Journal of Advanced Research in Literature, Culture, and Society (May 2015). Posted online.

———. “On Nora Aunor and the Philippine Star System: An Introduction.” Guest Editor’s introduction. Kritika Kultura 25 (August 2015): 46-48. Posted online.

———. “Firmament Occupation: The Philippine Star System.” Kritika Kultura 25 (August 2015): 248-84. Posted online.

———. “Historical Film Depicts Antonio Luna’s Fall and Rise.” Originally titled “Antonio Luna’s Fall and Rise.” Review of Heneral Luna, dir. Jerrold Tarog. The FilAm (October 15, 2015). Posted online.

———. “Alien Abjection amid the Morning Calm: A Singular Reading of Horror Films from beyond Southeast Asia.” Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society 12.2 (August 2015): 201-23. Posted online.

———. “Intrigues, Maneuvers, Interventions: Screen Images of the Korean War and its Aftermath.” Keynote lecture. 4PKSS: Proceedings of the 4th Philippine Korean Studies Symposium (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Department of Linguistics, 2015): 25-49.

2016

David, Joel. Book Texts: A Pinoy Film Course, original digital edition (Amauteurish, 2016).

———. “Manay Revisits Manila by Night.” Interview with Bernardo Bernardo. Amauteurish! (January 26, 2016). Formerly posted online, now an Appendix in Manila by Night: A Queer Film Classic.

———. “Roads Less Traveled.” Review of Lakbay2Love, dir. Ellen Ongkeko-Marfil. Rappler (February 10, 2016). Posted online.

———. “Annual Filipino Film Production Chart.” Amauteurish! (February 25, 2016). Posted online.

———. Millennial Traversals: Outliers, Juvenilia, & Quondam Popcult Blabbery. Part II: Expanded Perspectives – special issue of UNITAS: Semi-Annual Peer-Reviewed International Journal of Advanced Research in Literature, Culture, and Society (May 2016). Posted online.

———. “How Pop Culture, Social Media Played a Role in Halalan 2016.” Commentary on the 2016 Philippine presidential election campaign. The FilAm (May 15, 2016). Posted online.

———. “Doy del Mundo on a Controversy over Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag.” Interview with Clodualdo del Mundo Jr. Amauteurish! (July 2, 2016). Posted online.

———. “In Ma’ Rosa, Cannes Best Actress Jaclyn Jose Plays a Meth Dealer with Eloquence, Warmth.” Originally titled “Ice with a Face.” Review of Ma’ Rosa, dir. Brillante Ma. Mendoza. The FilAm (July 14, 2016). Posted online.

———. “Searched For, But Not Missing.” Review of Ang Nawawala, dir. Marie Jamora. Amauteurish! (September 1, 2016). Posted online.

———. “Fallout over ‘A Lover’s Polemic’.” Amauteurish! (September 19, 2016). Posted online.

———. “Cold Word Wars: Philippine Film as a Critical Activity.” 2016 FACINE Gawad Lingap Sining Lecture, delivered October 18, 2016 at the Diego Rivera Theater, City College of San Francisco. Amauteurish! (October 19, 2016). Posted online.

———. “The Role of the Film Critic in Cultural Discourse.” Abridged version of “Cold Word Wars: Philippine Film as a Critical Activity.” 2016 FACINE Gawad Lingap Sining Lecture. The FilAm (October 23, 2016). Posted online.

———. “Grains and Flickers.” Remembering/Rethinking EDSA, eds. JPaul S. Manzanilla and Carolyn Hau (Mandaluyong City: Anvil, 2016): 172-87.

2017

David, Joel. Manila by Night: A Queer Film Classic. Queer Film Classics series, eds. Thomas Waugh & Matthew Hayes. Vancouver, BC: Arsenal Pulp Press, 2017.

David, Joel. Various entries for Film, vol. 6 of the Cultural Center of the Philippines Encyclopedia of Philippine Art, ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson (Manila: CCP & the Office of the Chancellor, University of the Philippines Diliman, 2017): “Aksyon” (with Lynn Pareja, updated by Mesandel Arguelles), 112-13; “Animation” (with Lynn Pareja, updated by Michael Kho Lim), 114-17; “Horror” (with Lynn Pareja, updated by Erika Carreon), 134-35; “Komedi” (with Lynn Pareja, updated by Mesandel Arguelles), 136-38; “Musical” (with Lynn Pareja & Nicanor G. Tiongson, updated by Johann Vladimir J. Espiritu), 139-40; “Acting in Film” (with Justino Dormiendo, updated by Johann Vladimir J. Espiritu), 146-47; “Cinematography” (with Nick Cruz, updated by Elvin Valerio and Clodualdo del Mundo Jr.), 161-64; “Distribution in Film” (with Rosalie Matilac, updated by Albert Almendralejo), 179-82; “Producing for Film” (with Nick Cruz & Rosalie Matilac, updated by Jose Javier Reyes, 196-99; “Sound Recording in Film” (with Nick Cruz, updated by Rica Arevalo), 210-11; and “Training and Education for Film” (with Lynn Pareja, updated by Johann Vladimir J. Espiritu), 213-14.

David, Joel. “Velasco, Johven.” Theater, vol. 9 of the Cultural Center of the Philippines Encyclopedia of Philippine Art, ed. Nicanor G. Tiongson (Manila: CCP & the Office of the Chancellor, University of the Philippines Diliman, 2017) 796.

———. “Contestable Nation-Space: Cinema, Cultural Politics, and Transnationalism in the Marcos-Brocka Philippines. By Rolando B. Tolentino. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2014. Pp. 267 + xii. ISBN-10: 971-5427359; ISBN-13: 978-9715427357.” Book review. International Journal of Asian Studies (January 2017): 112-15. Posted online.

———. “Vampariah as Subversive Aswang Film.” Originally titled “Peerless Vampire Killers.” Review of Vampariah, dir. Matthew Abaya. The FilAm (January 12, 2017). Posted online.

———. “Remembering the Forgotten War: Origins of the Korean War Film and Its Development during Hallyu.” Kritika Kultura 28 (February 2017): 112-46. Posted online.

호세 에르나니 S. 다비드. “녹슨 팔과 가려운 손가락; 두테르테 대통령의 마약과의 전쟁에 대한 문화적 시각.” 5회 국가폭력과 트라우마 국제회의. Trans. n.a. (Gwangju: Trauma Center, 2017) 103-12.

David, Joel. “Rusty Arms and Itchy Fingers: A Cultural Perspective on President Duterte’s War on Drugs.” The 5th International Conference on State Violence and Trauma. [As “Jose Hernani S. David”] (Gwangju: Trauma Center, 2017) 113-27.

———. “Seeds in the Garden of Letters: A Review of The End of National Cinema by Patrick F. Campos.” Humanities Diliman: A Philippine Journal of Humanities 14.2 (July-December 2017) 153-57. Posted online.

———. “Film May Be Dead, But Film Culture Is Alive and Well.” Review of Respeto, dir. Treb Monteras II. The FilAm (August 18, 2017). Posted online.

———. “Muzzled Bombardments: The Philippine Film Canon and Its Discontents.” Roundtable on the Filipino Film Canon. Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society 14.2 (November 2017): 221-31. Posted online.

———. “A Certain Tendency: Europeanization as a Response to Americanization in the Philippines’s ‘Golden Age’ Studio System.” UNITAS: Semi-Annual Peer-Reviewed International Journal of Advanced Research in Literature, Culture, and Society 90.2 (November 2017): 24-53. Posted online.

2018

David, Joel. “The Storyline of Ishmael Bernal’s Manila by Night (1980).” Originally drafted for Arsenal Pulp Press’s Manila by Night: A Queer Film Classic. Amauteurish! (February 9, 2018). Posted online.

———. “Parallel Growths.” Kolum Kritika on the 30th Anniversary. Kritika Kultura 30/31 (February-August 2018): 90-91. Posted online.

———. “Farewell Farewell, Bernardo Bernardo” “Toward the End, a Hopeful Outlook for the Philippines.” The FilAm (March 21, 2018). Posted online.

———. “Statement on the Availability of Filipino Films during the Internet Era.” Amauteurish! (April 15, 2018). Posted online.

———. “The Transnational Pastime: An Interview with Joel David.” Interviewed by Paul Douglas Grant. Plaridel: A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society 14.1 (June 2017): 135-45. Posted online.

———. “Amid the Nightmare of War, a Coming-of-Age.” Review of Balangiga: Howling Wilderness, dir. Khavn. The FilAm (July 16, 2018). Posted online.

———. “Queerness as Defiance in Manila by Night.” Lecture delivered during the launch of Angela Stuart-Santiago’s Pro Bernal, Anti Bio. Amauteurish! (August 7, 2018). Posted online.

———. “The Millennial Traversals of Millennial Traversals.” Lecture delivered during the launch of the University of Santo Tomas’s UNITAS website. Amauteurish! (August 16, 2018). Posted online.

———. “Signal Rock and a Hard Place.” Review of Signal Rock, dir. Chito Roño. Philippine Entertainment Portal (August 17, 2018). Posted online.

———. “Tears Go By.” Review of Ang Pamilyang Hindi Lumuluha, dir. Mes de Guzman. All Things Sharon (October 18, 2018). Posted online.

2019

David, Joel. Millennial Traversals: Outliers, Juvenilia, & Quondam Popcult Blabbery. Book Edition (single-volume, back-to-back). Quezon City: Ámauteurish Publishing, 2019.

———. “Theater, Film, & Everything in Between.” Introduction. Two Women as Specters of History: Lakambini & Indigo Child by Rody Vera. Ed. Ellen Ongkeko Marfil (Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2019): xiii-xxii.

———. “A Salute to Our Pinay Filmmakers.” Amauteurish! (March 26, 2019). Originally posted March 25, 2019, on Facebook.

———. “Manoy Takes His Leave.” Tribute to the late Eddie Garcia. The FilAm (July 23, 2019). Posted online.

———. “Di/Visibility: Marks of Bisexuality in Philippine Cinema.” Survey article. Journal of Bisexuality 19.3 (September 2019): 440-54. Posted online.

———. “The Barrettos and the Privilege of Behaving Badly.” On the latest saga in the long-running showbiz family scandal. The FilAm (October 28, 2019). Posted online.

———. “Showbiz Babylon: A Tribute-of-Sorts to the Barretto Sisters.” Expanded version of “The Barrettos and the Privilege of Behaving Badly,” published October 28, 2019, in The FilAm. Amauteurish! (October 29, 2019). Posted online.

———. “Comprehensive Pinas Film Biblio: Categorized.” Amauteurish! (December 4, 2019). Posted online.

———. “Comprehensive Pinas Film Biblio: Alphabetized.” Amauteurish! (December 4, 2019). Posted online.

2020

David, Joel, and Jo-Ann Q. Maglipon. SINÉ: The YES! List of 100 Films That Celebrate Philippine Cinema (Mandaluyong: Summit Media, 2020 forthcoming).

David, Joel. “Bringing Theater to the Home.” The PETA Milestone Book Project. Eds. Brenda Fajardo, CB Garrucho, Maribel Legarda, & Beng Cabangon (Quezon City: Philippine Educational Theater Association, 2020 forthcoming).

———. “Authoring Auteurs: A Bibliographical Essay.” In relation to the Comprehensive Pinas Film Biblio posted on December 4, 2019. Amauteurish! (January 18, 2020). Posted online.

———. “The Aunor Effect in Philippine Film Book Publications.” A spinoff of the bibliographical essay “Authoring Auteurs,” posted on January 18, 2020. Amauteurish! (January 28, 2020). Posted online.

David, Joel, and Joyce L. Arriola. “Film Criticism in the Philippines: Introduction to a Symposium.” UNITAS: Semi-Annual Peer-Reviewed International Journal of Advanced Research in Literature, Culture, and Society 93.1 (May 2020): 1-16. Posted online.

David, Joel. “Auteurs & Amateurs: Toward an Ethics of Film Criticism.” UNITAS: Semi-Annual Peer-Reviewed International Journal of Advanced Research in Literature, Culture, and Society 93.1 (May 2020): 17-36. Posted online.

———. “My Peque Gallaga Interview.” Commemoration of the recently departed filmmaker. Amauteurish! (May 9, 2020). Posted online.

———. “Peque’s Rage: A Retelling.” Abridgment of “My Peque Gallaga Interview,” printed in Amauteurish! on May 9, 2020. The FilAm (May 12, 2020). Posted online.

———. “Remembering Anita Linda: She Devoted Her Life So Completely to Her Craft that It Defined Her.” Tribute to the late film actress. ABS-CBN News Channel [ANCX, formerly ABS-CBNnews.com] (June 13, 2020). Posted online.

———. “Comprehensive Pinas Film Biblio: Reverse-Chronologized.” Amauteurish! (June 22, 2020). Posted online.

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